Document Detail

Experience-dependent plasticity in hypocretin/orexin neurones: re-setting arousal threshold.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  19785627     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The neuropeptide hypocretin is synthesized exclusively in the lateral hypothalamus and participates in many brain functions critical for animal survival, particularly in the promotion and maintenance of arousal in animals - a core process in animal behaviours. Consistent with its arousal-promoting role in animals, the neurones synthesizing hypocretin receive extensive innervations encoding physiological, psychological and environmental cues and send final outputs to key arousal-promoting brain areas. The activity in hypocretin neurones fluctuates and correlates with the behavioural state of animals and intensive activity has been detected in hypocretin neurones during wakefulness, foraging for food and craving for addictive drugs. Therefore, it is likely that hypocretin neurones undergo experience-dependent changes resulting from intensive activations by stimuli encoding changes in the internal and external environments. This review summarizes the most recent evidence supporting experience-dependent plasticity in hypocretin neurones. Current data suggest that nutritional and behavioural factors lead to synaptic plasticity and re-organization of synaptic architecture in hypocretin neurones. This may be the substrate of enhanced levels of arousal resulting from behavioural changes in animals and may help to explain the mechanisms underlying the changes in arousal levels induced by physiological, psychological and environmental factors.
X-B Gao; A H Wang
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review     Date:  2009-09-24
Journal Detail:
Title:  Acta physiologica (Oxford, England)     Volume:  198     ISSN:  1748-1716     ISO Abbreviation:  Acta Physiol (Oxf)     Publication Date:  2010 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-04-27     Completed Date:  2010-06-14     Revised Date:  2014-09-10    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101262545     Medline TA:  Acta Physiol (Oxf)     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  251-62     Citation Subset:  IM    
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MeSH Terms
Arousal / physiology*
Behavior / physiology*
Differential Threshold
Hypothalamus / physiology
Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism*
Neuronal Plasticity / physiology*
Neurons / physiology*
Neuropeptides / metabolism*
Neurotransmitter Agents / metabolism*
Nutritional Physiological Phenomena / physiology*
Sleep / physiology
Synaptic Transmission / physiology
Wakefulness / physiology
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0/Neuropeptides; 0/Neurotransmitter Agents; 0/orexins

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