Document Detail

Expanded paper towel test: an objective test of urine loss for stress incontinence.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  15382187     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
AIM: To investigate the repeatability of a short stress test of coughing and jumping (the expanded Paper Towel Test (PTT)) to quantify urine loss in stress incontinent adult women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the laboratory, the reliability of two methods of measuring the size of the wet area, produced by a typical volume of water titrated onto paper towel was investigated and some absorbency properties of the brand of towel used were quantified. Thirty one women performed a provocative coughing and jumping test on consecutive days using a "perineal pad" of paper towel. The repeatability coefficient was calculated. RESULTS: The provocative test was repeatable to within 2.8 ml of urine loss, but with the exclusion of one anomalous result, the repeatability improved to lie within 1 ml. The coefficient of variation (CV) for the between-method differences (computer scanning and graph paper) was 1.27%. A volume of 1 ml of water produced a wet area of 25.7 cm2. The range of measurable areas corresponded to volumes of 0.005-8 ml. Standardization of method is required because the size of the wet area differed by manufacturer of paper towel (P < 0.01, two products compared) and with time elapsed since titration (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The "expanded PTT" is a simple tool for quantification of urine loss (0.005-8 ml) in women to 72 years with stress incontinence. With a suggested modification, it should prove reliable for detection of between-visit differences of 1 ml. The reliability of the test is dependent upon the use of standard protocol and paper towel with known volume-area ratio. To improve clinical diagnosis, it can also be used with any brand of paper towel to confirm the sign of stress incontinence on exertion.
Patricia Neumann; Leigh Blizzard; Karen Grimmer; Ruth Grant
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Neurourology and urodynamics     Volume:  23     ISSN:  0733-2467     ISO Abbreviation:  Neurourol. Urodyn.     Publication Date:  2004  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2004-09-27     Completed Date:  2004-12-07     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8303326     Medline TA:  Neurourol Urodyn     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  649-55     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, North Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.
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MeSH Terms
Age Factors
Cough / complications
Incontinence Pads*
Middle Aged
Reproducibility of Results
Urinary Incontinence, Stress / diagnosis*,  epidemiology,  urine

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