Document Detail

Exogenous surfactant and positive end-expiratory pressure in the treatment of endotoxin-induced lung injury.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  9710098     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of treating endotoxin-induced lung injury with single dose exogenous surfactant and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). DESIGN: Prospective trial. SETTING: Laboratory at a university medical center. SUBJECTS: Nineteen certified healthy pigs, weighing 15 to 20 kg. INTERVENTIONS: Pigs were anesthetized and surgically prepared for hemodynamic and lung function measurements. Animals were randomized into four groups: a) Control pigs (n = 4) received an intravenous infusion of saline without Escherichia colilipopolysaccharide (LPS); b) the LPS group (n = 5) received an intravenous infusion of saline containing LPS (100 microg/kg); c) the PEEP plus saline group (n = 5) received an intravenous infusion of saline containing LPS. Two hours after LPS infusion, saline was instilled into the lung as a control for surfactant instillation, and the animals were placed on 7.5 cm H2O of PEEP; d) the PEEP plus surfactant group (n = 5) received an intravenous infusion of saline containing LPS. Two hours following LPS infusion, surfactant (50 mg/kg) was instilled into the lung and the animals were placed on 7.5 cm H2O of PEEP. PEEP was applied first and surfactant or saline was instilled into the lung while maintaining positive pressure ventilation. All groups were studied for 6 hrs after the start of LPS injection. At necropsy, bronchoalveolar lavage was performed and the right middle lung lobe was fixed for histologic analysis. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Compared with LPS without treatment, PEEP plus surfactant significantly increased PaO2 (PEEP plus surfactant = 156.6 +/- 18.6 [SEM] torr [20.8 +/- 2.5 kPa]; LPS = 79.2 +/- 21.9 torr [10.5 +/- 2.9 kPa]; p<.05), and decreased venous admixture (PEEP plus surfactant = 12.5 +/- 2.0%; LPS = 46.9 +/- 14.2%; p< .05) 5 hrs after LPS infusion. These changes were not significant 6 hrs after LPS infusion. PEEP plus surfactant did not alter ventilatory efficiency index (VEI = 3800/[peak airway pressure - PEEP] x respiratory rate x PacO2), or static compliance as compared with LPS without treatment at any time point. Cytologic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid showed that surfactant treatment significantly increased the percentage of alveolar neutrophils as compared with LPS without treatment (PEEP plus surfactant = 39.1 +/- 5.5%; LPS = 17.4 +/- 6.6%; p< .05). Histologic analysis showed that LPS caused edema accumulation around the airways and pulmonary vessels, and a significant increase in the number of sequestered leukocytes (LPS group = 3.4 +/- 0.2 cells/6400 micro2; control group = 1.3 +/- 0.1 cells/6400 micro2; p < .05). PEEP plus saline and PEEP plus surfactant significantly increased the total number of sequestered leukocytes in the pulmonary parenchyma (PEEP plus surfactant = 8.2 +/- 0.7 cells/6400 micro2; PEEP plus saline = 3.9 +/- 0.2 cells/6400 micro2; p <.05) compared with the control and LPS groups. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that PEEP plus surfactant treatment of endotoxin-induced lung injury transiently improves oxygenation, but is unable to maintain this salutary effect indefinitely. Thus, repeat bolus dosing of surfactant or bolus treatment followed by continuous aerosol delivery may be necessary for a continuous beneficial effect.
C J Lutz; A Picone; L A Gatto; A Paskanik; S Landas; G F Nieman
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Critical care medicine     Volume:  26     ISSN:  0090-3493     ISO Abbreviation:  Crit. Care Med.     Publication Date:  1998 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1998-09-01     Completed Date:  1998-09-01     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0355501     Medline TA:  Crit Care Med     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1379-89     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Department of Surgery, SUNY Health Science Center at Syracuse, NY 13210, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid / cytology
Disease Models, Animal
Escherichia coli*
Infusions, Intravenous
Leukocyte Count
Lipopolysaccharides / toxicity*
Neutrophils / pathology
Positive-Pressure Respiration*
Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult / chemically induced,  pathology,  therapy*
Respiratory Function Tests
Surface-Active Agents / administration & dosage,  therapeutic use*
Treatment Outcome
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Lipopolysaccharides; 0/Surface-Active Agents
Comment In:
Crit Care Med. 1998 Aug;26(8):1307-8   [PMID:  9710083 ]

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