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Exercise tolerance in asymptomatic patients with moderate-severe valvular heart disease and preserved ejection fraction.
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PMID:  23319976     Owner:  NLM     Status:  PubMed-not-MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
INTRODUCTION: For asymptomatic patients with moderate-severe valvular heart disease, in whom symptoms may be obscured, objective exercise tolerance measures are warranted for decisions concerning physical activities and surgical treatment.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: We compared 61 patients (39 with aortic stenosis, 22 with aortic or mitral regurgitation) to 23 controls without valvular heart disease but with indications for stress testing. All participants underwent cardiopulmonary function testing and dobutamine stress echocardiography. Blood was drawn before as well as after bicycle stress to assess high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hscTnT). Patients who underwent surgery were re-evaluated 1.5 ±0.9 years after the operation.
RESULTS: Conventional bicycle test following guideline criteria revealed a pathologic result in 26% of the patients, whereas spiroergometry showed an objectively reduced exercise tolerance in 59%, reaching a prognostically relevant feature in 39%. Stress echocardiography detected a reduced systolic reserve in 33% and elevated filling pressures in 62%. These abnormalities were significantly less present in the control group (4, 17, 9, 9, 4% respectively, p < 0.05 each). Baseline hscTnT detected patients with the prognostically important feature of reduced exercise tolerance (area under the curve 0.689 (95% CI: 0.546-0.831), p = 0.015). Objective preoperative exercise tolerance predicted sustained cardiocirculatory and myocardial dysfunction postoperatively.
CONCLUSIONS: Cardiopulmonary function testing and dobutamine stress echocardiography identify exercise intolerance in patients with asymptomatic valvular heart disease beyond stress-test criteria recommended in recent guidelines. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin I may be of additional value. Results of these tests presage post-operative function.
Authors:
Schulz Olaf; Brala Debora; Bensch Ricarda; Berghöfer Gunnar; Krämer Jochen; Ingolf Schimke; Martin Halle; Allan Jaffe
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article     Date:  2012-12-19
Journal Detail:
Title:  Archives of medical science : AMS     Volume:  8     ISSN:  1734-1922     ISO Abbreviation:  Arch Med Sci     Publication Date:  2012 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-01-15     Completed Date:  2013-01-16     Revised Date:  2013-05-30    
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Nlm Unique ID:  101258257     Medline TA:  Arch Med Sci     Country:  Poland    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1018-26     Citation Subset:  -    
Affiliation:
Interventional Cardiology Spandau, Berlin, Germany.
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Journal ID (nlm-ta): Arch Med Sci
Journal ID (iso-abbrev): Arch Med Sci
Journal ID (publisher-id): AMS
ISSN: 1734-1922
ISSN: 1896-9151
Publisher: Termedia Publishing House
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Received Day: 31 Month: 8 Year: 2012
Revision Received Day: 10 Month: 11 Year: 2012
Accepted Day: 20 Month: 11 Year: 2012
Electronic publication date: Day: 19 Month: 12 Year: 2012
Print publication date: Day: 20 Month: 12 Year: 2012
Volume: 8 Issue: 6
First Page: 1018 Last Page: 1026
PubMed Id: 23319976
ID: 3542492
Publisher Id: 19914
DOI: 10.5114/aoms.2012.32409

Exercise tolerance in asymptomatic patients with moderate-severe valvular heart disease and preserved ejection fraction
Schulz Olaf1
Brala Debora1
Bensch Ricarda1
Berghöfer Gunnar1
Krämer Jochen1
Ingolf Schimke2
Martin Halle3
Allan Jaffe4
1Interventional Cardiology Spandau, Berlin, Germany
2Department of Cardiology, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany
3Department of Prevention and Sports Medicine, Technische Universität Munich, Germany
4Mayo Clinic and Medical School, Rochester, MN, USA
Correspondence: Corresponding author: Schulz Olaf MD, Interventionelle Kardiologie Spandau, Neuendorfer Str. 70, 13585 Berlin. Phone: +49 303039800. E-mail: oschulz@cath-lab-spandau.de

Introduction

In patients with higher-degree valvular heart disease (VHD), symptoms determine prognosis, e.g. the timing of surgery, but symptoms may be obscured by comorbidities. Thus, a stress test to objectivate exercise tolerance in patients reporting to be asymptomatic is recommended [1].

The aim of our study was to investigate whether spiroergometry, dobutamine stress echocardiography as well as a biomarker of myocardial injury are more sensitive than recommended stress test criteria, achievable from a conventional bicycle test. Patients who underwent surgery were investigated postoperatively as well to describe whether optimized timing of surgery by consideration of objective exercise intolerance is potentially able to prevent also postoperatively continuing remodeling and reduced functional outcome.


Material and methods
Patients

The inclusion and exclusion criteria for this study have been reported in detail recently [2]. We consecutively included patients with VHD and preserved left ventricular ejection fractions (EF; ≥ 50%) who denied cardiovascular symptoms. Patients with aortic stenosis required a mean pressure gradient > 35 mm Hg or an aortic valve area < 1 cm2. For patients with aortic or mitral regurgitation, the severity of regurgitation required was > grade 2 established by a comprehensive evaluation of color and conventional Doppler criteria. Exclusion criteria were an indication for surgical treatment of VHD [1], concomitant additional valvular lesions > grade 2, significant coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, an inability to perform stress testing, or other severe noncardiac comorbidities. In the control group we included subjects referred for stress testing due to suspicious symptoms. However, serious, exercise-limiting diseases (e.g. VHD, myocardial ischemia, reduced EF (< 50%) or myocarditis) could be excluded. All subjects provided written informed consent. The local ethics committee approved the study.

All patients and controls underwent a double stress protocol including a symptom-limited semisupine bicycle exercise test with assessment of cardiopulmonary function and a dobutamine-stress echocardiogram stepwise to a maximum heart rate of 120/min on separate days within 1 week.

Stress tests

Cardiopulmonary function analysis was performed by using a computerized breath-by-breath analyzer QuarkPFT® (Cosmed, Rome, Italy). Patients were exercised until symptoms or exhaustion or to at least a respiratory quotient of 1.1. Twelve-lead ECG was monitored during testing and ST-segment analysis was performed by signal averaging using the software Cardiosoft® (GE, Fairfield, Connecticut). Blood pressure was measured at each exercise level. Anaerobic threshold was assessed using graphs 5, 6, 8 and 9 from the Wasserman plot, with preference to the V slope (plot 5). O2 consumption was estimated at peak exercise (VO2peak) and at the anaerobic threshold (VO2AT). The percentage of VO2peak to the predicted age and gender was determined (VO2%pred) by nomogram [3]. The slope of the ratio of ventilation to carbon oxide production (VE/VCO2 slope) was assessed based on established criteria [4].

Echocardiographic measurements were performed on a Vivid 5® ultrasound machine (GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI) according to guidelines [5]. Left ventricular mass was estimated in accordance with [6]. Ejection fraction was assessed visually and by the Simpson method. For further analysis, visually assessed values were used.

Conventional PW tissue Doppler measures of systole (S′) and diastole (E′ and A′) were derived from the septal and lateral border of the mitral annulus. Aortic valve area was calculated by continuity equation. Transmitral inflow E/ E′ [7] and E/flow propagation velocity [8] were determined to estimate left ventricular filling pressure. Doppler parameters were acquired by averaging data from 3 and flow propagation velocity from 5 cardiac cycles. Parameters were indexed to body surface area, where appropriate. During dobutamine stress, left ventricular function was assessed at each stress level. At peak heart rate, all echocardiographic parameters were measured repeatedly.

Measurement of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hscTnT)

Blood was drawn before and 3 h and/or 5 h after bicycle exercise. We measured hscTnT with the Elecsys-2010® analyzer, Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany (limit of the blank 3 pg/ml, the 99th percentile and 10% coefficient of variation 13 pg/ml). Baseline and the latest post-stress values were presented. For values below the limit (< 3 pg/ml) we assumed a value of 0.01 pg/ml to avoid exclusion during log-transformation.

Definitions of stress response for all patients

A guideline-related positive test (GRPT) was considered if one of the parameters mentioned in recent recommendations such as symptoms, an inadequate blood pressure response, complex ventricular arrhythmia or > 0.2 mV ST depression occurred during bicycle stress [9]. Reduced exercise tolerance (RET) was defined when VO2 peak was < 80% of predicted [3]. A prognostically relevant feature of reduced exercise tolerance (PRET) was diagnosed if VO2peak, VO2AT or VE/VCO2 slope values reached values associated with adverse outcomes in heart failure (< 14 [10], < 11 [11], > 33 [12]). Reduced systolic reserve was considered present if the increase in EF after dobutamine was < 10% [13, 14]. E/E′ septal and lateral as well as E/flow propagation velocity were defined as elevated if they were > 15 [7], > 10 [15] and > 1.5 [8]. An elevated filling pressure was diagnosed if two of these were elevated.

Postoperative follow-up

Patients who underwent surgery underwent repeated echocardiography and spiroergometry postoperatively as soon as they perceived that their cardiopulmonary function was no longer affected by surgery.

Statistical analysis

SPSS 13.0® (SPSS Institute Inc., Chicago Il.) and SAS 9.2® (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) programs were used. Reference parameters are reported as mean ± SD. Biomarker data are presented as median and interquartile ranges. For statistical calculations log10-transformed values were used. Differences between groups are calculated by unpaired t test for continuous variables. Fisher's exact test was used in cross-table analysis for categorical variables. Differences between measured points before and after exercise, and after surgery respectively, were analyzed by the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Associations between variables of exercise tolerance and hscTnT as well as with postoperative outcome were tested by linear (for continuous) and logistic (for categorical dependent variables) backward regression analysis. Age, gender, creatinine, hscTnT, contractile reserve, filling pressure (or alternatively in different models E or E′) and VO2%pred (or alternatively PRET) were used as independent variables.

A receiver-operator characteristic curve was constructed for hscTnT and exercise tolerance parameters.


Results

From 76 screened patients with valvular heart disease 61 could be included. Reasons for not including/terminating the study were: 5 patients refused, 1 patient moved. Clinical reasons were detection of coronary artery disease (n = 5), reevaluation of symptoms, development of atrial fibrillation shortly after inclusion, report of a psychiatric disease by the general practitioner, not ultimate exclusion of myocarditis (each n = 1).

All participants underwent the double-stress protocol without any complications. Baseline characteristics of the population and echocardiographic values are shown in Table I.

Hemodynamics during bicycle stress and dobutamine stress echocardiography are tabulated in Tables II and III. Due to the restrictions in our dobutamine echocardiographic protocol recommended by the ethical review board, patients with VHD reached a lower heart rate than controls. All other hemodynamic parameters were comparable.

Bicycle stress test and exercise capacity

During bicycle stress testing, 16 patients (26.2% of the VHD group) had a GRPT: 13 (21.3%) patients endorsed dyspnea during bicycle stress testing. No patient reported angina or dizziness. Seven patients manifested significant ST depression. No complex arrhythmias or abnormal arterial pressure responses occurred. Amongst controls, only one patient reported dyspnea. The occurrence of GRPT was higher in VHD patients (p = 0.0320), particularly in those with aortic stenosis (p = 0.0235).

Patients with VHD were able to climb one flight of stairs fewer than controls. Objectively, they achieved a 30 Ws lower level during bicycle stress (p < 0.05 for both). During cardiopulmonary exercise (Table II), a respiratory quotient of 1.22 ±0.16 was reached. Reduced exercise tolerance occurred in 59% of patients with VHD. In 39.3% of patients the reduction of exercise tolerance reached the range associated with poorer outcomes (PRET group) [1012].

Dobutamine stress, contractile reserve and filling pressures

Assessment of systolic reserve and left ventricular filling pressures by stress echocardiography are tabulated in Table III. Sixty-two percent of VHD patients met at least two of three criteria for prognostic elevations of left ventricular filling pressures [7, 8, 15] before dobutamine and 36.7% after. Thirty-three percent of patients with VHD and 8.7% of controls lacked systolic reserve.

Prognostically relevant reduction in exercise tolerance (PRET) and hscTnT

Patients with PRET (n = 37) were older (67 ±12 years vs. 59 ±15 years; p = 0.0198), more often female (46% vs. 22%; p = 0.0132), and more often received vasodilators (54% vs. 16%; p = 0.0039). E/flow propagation velocity after dobutamine was lower (1.4 ±0.4 vs. 1.8 ±0.6; p = 0.0106), which was associated with lower E after dobutamine (95.7 ±23.9 cm/s vs. 113.2 ±32.6 cm/s; p = 0.0187). Flow propagation was not different. E′ septal was lower (6.4 ±1.5 cm/s vs. 7.6 ±3.0 cm/s; p = 0.0338) in PRET, too. The type of VHD did not differ significantly between patients with or without PRET. However, 46% of patients with aortic stenosis, but only 27% of patients with regurgitation, belonged to the PRET group (p = 0.18). There were no other differences in measures of systolic reserve or diastolic filling. The frequencies of symptoms during stress tests, of ST-segment depression and of the combined parameter GRPT did not differ between patients with and without PRET.

Patients with VHD manifested higher values of hscTnT before and after stress than controls (p at least < 0.01, Figure 1) without differences in patients with aortic stenosis and regurgitation. A small exercise-induced increase was found for hscTnT in patients with VHD (p < 0.01). Regression models revealed that VO2AT was predicted by baseline hscTnT (p = 0.0194). PRET was predicted by the resting hscTnT value (p = 0.0028). Receiver-operator characteristics to predict PRET with hscTnT demonstrated an area under the curve of 0.689 (95% CI: 0.546-0.831), p = 0.015. A hscTnT concentration of 6.96 pg/ml had a sensitivity of 0.696 and a specificity of 0.694. In the subgroup with aortic stenosis, prediction of PRET by hscTnT showed an area under the curve of 0.700 (95% CI: 0.529-0.871), p = 0.036. The best cut-off value to predict PRET was 6.39 pg/ml, which had a sensitivity of 0.706 and a specificity of 0.667.

Postoperative functional outcome

Fifty-two percent (32/61) of patients eventually underwent surgery. Of these, 6 patients were not able to perform the postoperative stress test (postoperatively, 1 patient died due to suspected acute ischemia, 1 suffered from a stroke, 2 from new atrial fibrillation, two patients reported progressive symptoms of heart failure). The remaining 26 patients were reevaluated 535 ±340 days after surgery. Echocardiographically, we observed a reduction of left ventricular mass index (113 ±33 g/m2 vs. 145 ±46 g/m2; p = 0.0026), and a borderline reduction of end diastolic diameter (26.9 ±27.6 mm/m2 vs. 29.4 ±4.6 mm/m2; p = 0.0511). Ejection fraction (61.6 ±6.6% vs. 66.2 ±4.2%; p < 0.0001) and heart rate at rest (69.1 ±11.5 bpm vs. 77.3 ±12.3 bpm; p = 0.0063) were lower after surgery but heart rate was higher after exercise (130 ±16 bpm vs. 122 ±19 bpm; p = 0.0449), indicating greater chronotropic reserve. The number of patients with VO2%pred < 80% (cutoff for RET) was reduced from 15 to 7; p = 0.0483. However, there was no improvement in the other single cardiopulmonary function parameter after stress. The number of patients with PRET did not change significantly.

Preoperatively assessed VO2pred predicted postoperative VO2pred (p = 0.002, β = 0.528, R2 = 0.426). Preoperatively present PRET predicted postoperative left ventricular EF (p = 0.022, β = 0.448, R2 = 0.246) and remodeling (by mass index (p = 0.040, β = 0.545, R2 = 0.425) and end diastolic diameter index (p = 0.047)). Baseline hscTnT predicted postoperative EF (p = 0.022, β = 0.451, R2 = 0.246).


Discussion

Our data demonstrated that cardiopulmonary function testing and dobutamine stress echocardiography detected features of stress intolerance more often than a guideline-based bicycle stress test [1]. These data are in agreement with results in patients with asymptomatic mitral regurgitation [16] and extend them to other valvular lesions. Many of these findings are associated with elevated hscTnT values, which are known to have prognostic importance [17].

Potential impact of stress tolerance on outcome

Recent reviews and guidelines highlighted that studies are needed to evaluate the prognostic value of measures from exercise testing in patients with diastolic dysfunction/heart failure and preserved EF [18], especially in patients with VHD [19, 20]. Approximately 40% of our patients (group with PRET) showed a prognostically unfavorable feature of cardiopulmonary function [1012]. In addition, abnormalities in pre-operative testing predicted the subsequent remodeling and cardiovascular function response in many patients. With the development of less invasive (e.g. transcatheter) procedures for valve replacements which possibly extend their indications, recently limited to very severe patients [21], these sorts of data should be valuable in helping to define subsets of patients with VHD who should be considered for earlier surgery.

Role of hscTnT

The finding that hscTnT was predictive for PRET in these patients was not unexpected. Elevations in hscTnT are sensitive to left ventricular hypertrophy and dilation [17]. In addition, stress-induced changes in troponin may be related to an acute stretch mechanism [22] or to integrin-mediated release [23]. Finally [22], elevations can occur with apoptosis, which has now been shown to be common in those with pathological hypertrophy [24, 25]. Regardless of mechanism, they suggest that an evaluative strategy might include hscTnT measurements.

Role of systolic and diastolic function

The group with PRET was more likely to have a reduced tissue Doppler E′ in consistence with the exercise capacity data reported in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction [26]. These data, including reduced transmitral E values, reflect deficient early diastolic left ventricular recoil in patients with heart failure and preserved EF [27]. There was no association with measures of elevated filling pressures and reduced contractile reserve, in contrast to other studies with heart failure and preserved EF [28, 29]. However, there is controversy [30, 31]; perhaps the association develops later. Improvements in exercise tolerance induced by physical training were not associated with lower filling pressures as assessed by E/flow propagation velocity [32] or with diastolic function in a recent meta-analysis [33]. The contribution of contractile depression/blunted LV contractile reserve to exercise intolerance is also equivocal [27].

Potential impact on clinical management

Our data may be helpful in managing patients with asymptomatic VHD. First, they may help to define physical activities for professional and recreational lives. It is clear that objective limitations often exceed patient reported symptoms. In addition, those with prognostically relevant reductions in exercise and associated increases in hscTnT should be scrutinized carefully for symptoms. For patients with asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis it is known that more than 30% will have either an event or surgical therapy by one year [34]. Our data may be particularly helpful for patients with aortic regurgitation. They can be asymptomatic for long periods before clinical deterioration. A more objective assessment may be helpful in deciding when to suggest surgical intervention. New surgical techniques have shifted the risk-benefit ratio for patients with mitral regurgitation, allowing for earlier intervention [35]; and these techniques are now being applied to the aortic valve [36]. In the longer term, suggested exercise tests and biomarker evaluations may give the chance to optimize decision-making and to prevent further remodeling and functional deterioration in patients with asymptomatic VHD.

This is an exploratory, hypothesis-generating study, conducted in a single center on a limited number of patients.

In conclusion, among patients with asymptomatic moderate-severe VHD, spiroergometry as well as dobutamine stress echocardiography provide more sensitive detection of exercise intolerance than stress test criteria recommended in guidelines. In 39% of patients with VHD, the reduction of exercise tolerance occurred over a range of values associated in other studies with worse outcomes. This subgroup of patients can be detected by elevations in hscTnT. Additionally, preoperative exercise tolerance predicted postoperative exercise capacity, left ventricular remodeling and function, and hscTnT predicted postoperative EF. Our data suggest that exercise tolerance as well as hscTnT may be helpful in evaluating patients with asymptomatic VHD.


Acknowledgments

We are grateful to Carsten Schwenke, scossis, for statistical help. Kits for hscTnT were kindly provided by Roche Diagnostics, Germany.


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Figures

[Figure ID: F0001]
Figure 1 

Box plots of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T: A) before, B) after exercise in controls (Con) and patients with asymptomatic VHD. Significance given for log transformed values. Boxes represent quartiles with median (bold line), whiskers delineate 95% confidence interval, open circles show outliers (values more than 1.5 box lengths), asterisk shows extremes (values more than three box lengths)



Tables
[TableWrap ID: T0001] Table I 

Baseline characteristics


Parameters Controls VHD Aortic stenosis Regurgitation
n 23 61 39 22
Male (%) 48 66 64 64
Age [years] 56 ±11 62 ±15* 67 ±11 54 ±17
Body mass index [kg/m2] 24.7 ±2.9 26.9 ±3.4 27.5 ±3.6 25.7 ±2.7
Creatinine [µmol/l] 73.0 ±13.5 82.9 ±16.6 79.2 ±14.1 86.2 ±19.0
Concomitant diseases, n:
  Arterial hypertension 9 30 23 7
  Diabetes mellitus 0 5 2 3
Medication, n:
  ACE inhibitors/ARB 4 46 27 19
  β-Blockers 10 27 16 11
  Calcium channel blockers/nitrates 1 19 13 6*
  Diuretics 0 29 15 14
Echocardiography:
  Left ventricular ejection fraction [%] 65.5 ±4.4 65.5 ±5.7 67.9 ±5.0 61.7 ±4.5*
  End systolic diameter/BSA [mm/m2] 15.6 ±2.7 15.4 ±4.2 13.8 ±3.4* 18.3 ±4.0*
  Left atrial diameter/BSA [mm/m2] 21.9 ±2.3 23.6 ±3.8* 23.4 ±3.8 24.0 ±3.9*
  Left ventricular mass/BSA [g/m2] 88 ±25 133 ±38 128 ±33 142 ±46
  Pressure gradient peak; mean [mm Hg] 90 ±18; 54 ±11
  Aortic valve area; -index [cm2; cm2/m2] 0.71 ±0.27; 0.38 ±0.12
  Regurgitation aortic; mitral [°] 2.8 ±0.3; 2.5 ±0.5
  Vena contracta aortal; mitral [cm] 0.70 ±0.17; 0.67 ±0.12

*p < 0.05

0.01

0.001 in comparison to controls. ACE – angiotensin-converting enzyme, ARB – angiotensin receptor blocker, BSA – body surface area, VHD – valvular heart disease


[TableWrap ID: T0002] Table II 

Bicycle stress test


Variables Control (n = 23) VHD (n = 61) Value of p VHD vs. Con AS (n = 39) Value of p AS vs. Con Reg (n = 22) Value of p Reg vs. Con Value of p AS vs. Reg
Flights of stairs, able to climb 5.3 ±1.9 4.2 ±1.6 0.0217 4.0 ±1.3 0.0084 4.5 ±1.9 0.20 0.27
Symptoms after stress (dyspnea), n (%) 1 (4.3) 13 (21.3) 0.10 9 (23.1) 0.08 4 (18.2) 0.19 0.75
ST-segment depression > –0.2 mV, n (%) 0 7 (11.5) 0.18 6 (15.4) 0.08 1 (4.5) 0.49 0.40
Guideline-related positive test (GRPT), n (%) 1 (4.3) 16 (26.2) 0.0321 11 (28.2) 0.0235 5 (22.7) 0.10 0.77
Maximal exercise level [Ws] 134.9 ±50.4 104.7 ±47.3 0.0174 96.1 ±36.1 0.0027 120.0 ±60.3 0.37 0.10
Heart rate [beats/min] Baseline 76.5 ±14.6 76.0 ±13.6 0.88 74.6 ±13.2 0.61 78.5 ±14.1 0.65 0.30
Peak stress 139.7 ±25.0 129.5 ±24.2 0.10 124.6 ±22.5 0.0220 138.1 ±25.3 0.84 0.0439
Value of p baseline-peak < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001
Systolic blood pressure [mm Hg] Baseline 128.7 ±17.9 131.6 ±15.0 0.49 134.1 ±15.5 0.23 127.1 ±13.2 0.74 0.07
Peak stress 185.6 ±29.3 178.3 ±21.7 0.29 175.2 ±20.0 0.14 183.8 ±23.9 0.11 0.16
Value of p baseline-peak < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001
Diastolic blood pressure [mm Hg] Baseline 74.3 ±11.2 77.9 ±11.5 0.59 80.1 ±11.4 0.81 74.0 ±10.9 0.11 0.0440
Peak stress 88.3 ±10.4 88.3 ±11.8 0.99 90.6 ±12.5 0.46 84.4 ±9.6 0.19 0.0345
Value of p baseline-peak < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 0.0008
VO2peak [ml/min/kg] 26.7 ±6.8 20.2 ±6.7 0.0004 19.0 ±6.0 < 0.0001 22.4 ±7.5 0.0483 0.08
VO2peak [%predicted] 94.7 ±20.0 79.9 ±27.7 0.0090 81.6 ±31.3 0.0496 76.7 ±20.2 0.0046 0.46
VO2AT [ml/min/kg] 16.6 ±4.7 12.9 ±3.6 0.0017 12.4 ±3.2 0.0005 13.8 ±4.2 0.0405 0.19
VE/VCO2 slope 28.8 ±5.6 30.1 ±7.7 0.41 30.4 ±7.7 0.34 29.5 ±7.7 0.74 0.65

Data are presented as mean ± SD, if not indicated otherwise. AS – aortic stenosis, Reg – regurgitation, VHD – valvular heart disease


[TableWrap ID: T0003] Table III 

Dobutamine stress test


Variables Control (n = 23) VHD (n = 61) Value of p VHD vs. Con AS (n = 39) Value of p AS vs. Con Reg (n = 22) Value of p Reg vs. Con Value of p AS vs. Reg
Symptoms after dobutamine, n (%) 1 (4.3) 11 (18.0) 0.16 6 (15.4) 0.18 5 (22.7) 0.08 0.35
Heart rate [beats/min] Baseline 67.4 ±13.4 71.9 ±9.0 0.15 72.3 ±9.7 0.13 71.1 ±7.7 0.26 0.60
Peak stress 119.7 ±5.3 116.0 ±9.0 0.0240 114.6 ±9.0 0.0072 118.4 ±8.8 0.56 0.12
Value of p baseline-peak < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001
Systolic blood pressure [mm Hg] Baseline 132.0 ±16.7 136.4 ±17.1 0.29 138.3 ±16.4 0.16 133.2 ±18.1 0.81 0.28
Peak stress 149.6 ±18.6 144.3 ±22.6 0.26 139.5 ±20.4 0.052 153.0 ±24.1 0.60 0.0330
Value of p baseline-peak 0.0001 0.0056 0.67 0.0006
Diastolic blood pressure [mm Hg] Baseline 81.7 ±9.4 77.7 ±8.7 0.06 79.6 ±9.2 0.30 75.0 ±7.1 0.0093 0.053
Peak stress 78.7 ±11.8 75.6 ±13.8 0.28 78.8 ±13.3 0.96 70.0 ±13.1 0.0243 0.0160
Value of p baseline-peak 0.1574 0.1623 0.83 0.07
EF [%] Baseline 64.0 ±4.4 65.3 ±4.7 0.27 67.1 ±3.9 0.0076 62.0 ±4.4 0.14 < 0.0001
Peak stress 75.9 ±5.9 74.4 ±4.8 0.27 75.5 ±4.7 0.81 72.4 ±4.5 0.0328 0.58
Value of p baseline-peak < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001
S′ septal [cm/s] Baseline 8.55 ±1.25 8.39 ±2.4 0.73 7.85 ±2.13 0.11 9.36 ±2.60 0.19 0.0254
Peak stress 16.4 ±5.23 14.2 ±5.6 0.12 12.1 ±4.41 0.0020 17.9 ±5.6 0.35 0.0002
Value of p baseline-peak < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001
Transmitral E [cm/s] Baseline 80.7 ±13.2 102.0 ±31.4 < 0.0001 103.1 ±30.1 0.0002 100.1 ±34.1 0.0190 0.74
Peak stress 82.9 ±16.6 106.3 ±30.5 < 0.0001 101.7 ±28.8 0.0018 114.5 ±32.5 0.0003 0.13
Value of p baseline-peak 0.4903 0.3323 0.79 0.10
E/E′ septal Baseline 8.76 ±2.11 15.7 ±6.5 < 0.0001 17.1 ±6.2 < 0.0001 13.1 ±6.3 0.0048 0.0208
Peak stress 8.90 ±2.91 14.5 ±7.01 < 0.0001 16.0 ±8.09 < 0.0001 11.9 ±3.2 0.0023 0.0065
Value of p baseline-peak 0.8062 0.1255 0.24 0.34
E/E′ lateral Baseline 6.69 ±1.68 11.2 ±4.8 < 0.0001 12.5 ±4.8 < 0.0001 8.8 ±3.7 0.0328 0.0022
Peak stress 6.24 ±2.07 9.63 ±4.09 < 0.0001 9.71 ±4.83 0.0002 9.70 ±3.17 0.81 0.99
Value of p baseline-peak 0.3458 0.0164 0.0015 0.17
E/flow propagation velocity Baseline 1.53 ±0.65 2.03 ±0.85 0.0058 1.90 ±0.76 0.0471 2.25 ±0.99 0.0071 0.17
Peak stress 1.22 ±0.41 1.62 ±0.58 0.0008 1.47 ±0.47 0.0358 1.90 ±0.67 0.0002 0.0111
Value of p baseline-peak 0.3693 0.0004 0.0009 < 0.0001

Data are presented as mean ± SD, if not indicated otherwise. EF – ejection fraction. Other abbreviations – see Table II



Article Categories:
  • Clinical Research

Keywords: valvular heart disease, exercise tolerance, spiroergometry, troponin.

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