Document Detail

Exercise like a hunter-gatherer: a prescription for organic physical fitness.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21545934     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
A large proportion of the health woes beleaguering modern cultures are because of daily physical activity patterns that are profoundly different from those for which we are genetically adapted. The ancestral natural environment in which our current genome was forged via natural selection called for a large amount of daily energy expenditure on a variety of physical movements. Our genes that were selected for in this arduous and demanding natural milieu enabled our ancestors to survive and thrive, leading to a very vigorous lifestyle. This abrupt (by evolutionary time frames) change from a very physically demanding lifestyle in natural outdoor settings to an inactive indoor lifestyle is at the origin of many of the widespread chronic diseases that are endemic in our modern society. The logical answer is to replicate the native human activity pattern to the extent that this is achievable and practical. Recommendations for exercise mode, duration, intensity, and frequency are outlined with a focus on simulating the routine physical activities of our ancient hunter-gatherer ancestors whose genome we still largely share today. In a typical inactive person, this type of daily physical activity will optimize gene expression and help to confer the robust health that was enjoyed by hunter-gatherers in the wild.
James H O'Keefe; Robert Vogel; Carl J Lavie; Loren Cordain
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Progress in cardiovascular diseases     Volume:  53     ISSN:  1873-1740     ISO Abbreviation:  Prog Cardiovasc Dis     Publication Date:    2011 May-Jun
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-05-06     Completed Date:  2011-07-19     Revised Date:  2013-05-02    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0376442     Medline TA:  Prog Cardiovasc Dis     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  471-9     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mid America Heart and Vascular Institute/University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Adaptation, Physiological / physiology*
Exercise / physiology*
Life Style*
Motor Activity / physiology*
Physical Fitness*

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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