Document Detail

Exercise frequency and calcium intake predict 4-year bone changes in postmenopausal women.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  16283062     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The aim of this study was to examine the association of exercise frequency and calcium intake (CI) with change in regional and total bone mineral density (BMD) in a group of postmenopausal women completing 4 years of progressive strength training. One hundred sixty-seven calcium-supplemented (800 mg/day) sedentary women (56.1+/-4.5 years) randomized to a progressive strength training exercise program or to control were followed for 4 years. Fifty-four percent of the women were using hormone therapy (HT) at baseline. At 1 year, controls were permitted to begin the exercise program (crossovers). The final sample included 23 controls, 55 crossovers, and 89 randomized exercisers. Exercisers were instructed to complete two sets of six to eight repetitions of exercises at 70-80% of one repetition maximum, three times weekly. BMD was measured at baseline and thereafter annually using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Four-year percentage exercise frequency (ExFreq) averaged 26.8%+/-20.1% for crossovers (including the first year at 0%), and 50.4%+/-26.7% for exercisers. Four-year total CI averaged 1,635+/-367 mg/day and supplemental calcium intake, 711+/-174 mg/day. In adjusted multiple linear regression models, ExFreq was positively and significantly related to changes in femur trochanter (FT) and neck (FN), lumbar spine (LS), and total body (TB) BMD. Among HT users, FT BMD increased 1.5%, and FN and LS BMD, 1.2% (p<0.01) for each standard deviation (SD) of percentage ExFreq (29.5% or 0.9 days/week). HT non-users gained 1.9% and 2.3% BMD at FT and FN, respectively, (p<0.05) for every SD of CI. The significant, positive, association between BMD change and ExFreq supports the long-term usefulness of strength training exercise for the prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, especially HT users. The positive relationship of CI to change in BMD among postmenopausal women not using HT has clinical implications in light of recent evidence of an increased health risk associated with HT.
Ellen C Cussler; Scott B Going; Linda B Houtkooper; Vanessa A Stanford; Robert M Blew; Hilary G Flint-Wagner; Lauve L Metcalfe; Ji-Eun Choi; Timothy G Lohman
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2005-11-10
Journal Detail:
Title:  Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA     Volume:  16     ISSN:  0937-941X     ISO Abbreviation:  Osteoporos Int     Publication Date:  2005 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2005-12-19     Completed Date:  2006-03-30     Revised Date:  2007-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9100105     Medline TA:  Osteoporos Int     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  2129-41     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Physiology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Absorptiometry, Photon / methods
Adipose Tissue / physiology
Bone Density / physiology*
Calcium, Dietary / administration & dosage*
Cross-Over Studies
Dietary Supplements*
Exercise / physiology*
Femur / physiology
Femur Neck / physiology
Hormone Replacement Therapy / methods
Lumbar Vertebrae / physiology
Middle Aged
Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal / prevention & control
Postmenopause / physiology
Weight Gain / physiology
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Calcium, Dietary

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