Document Detail


Ex situ bioengineering of bioartificial endocrine glands: A new frontier in regenerative medicine of soft tissue organs.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21803554     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Ex situ bioengineering is one of the most promising perspectives in the field of regenerative medicine allowing for organ reconstruction outside the living body; i.e. on the laboratory bench. A number of hollow viscera of the cardiovascular, respiratory, genitourinary, and digestive systems have been successfully bioengineered ex situ, exploiting biocompatible scaffolds with a 3D morphology that recapitulates that of the native organ (organomorphic scaffold). In contrast, bioengineering of entire soft tissue organs and, in particular endocrine glands still remains a substantial challenge. Primary reasons are that no organomorphic scaffolding for endocrine viscera have as yet been entirely assembled using biocompatible materials, nor is there a bioreactor performance capable of supporting growth within the thickness range of the regenerating cell mass which has proven to be reliable enough to ensure formation of a complete macroscopic gland ex situ. Current technical options for reconstruction of endocrine viscera include either biocompatible 3D reticular scaffolds lacking any organomorphic geometry, or allogenic/xenogenic acellular 3D matrices derived from a gland similar to that to be bioengineered, eventually recellularized by autologous/heterologous cells. In 2007, our group designed, using biocompatible material, an organomorphic scaffold-bioreactor unit for bioengineering ex situ the human thyroid gland, chosen as a model for its simple anatomical organization (repetitive follicular cavities). This unit reproduces both the 3D native geometry of the human thyroid stromal/vascular scaffold, and the natural thyrocyte/vascular interface. It is now under intense investigation as an experimental tool to test cellular 3D auto-assembly of thyroid tissue and its related vascular system up to the ex situ generation of a 3D macroscopic thyroid gland. We believe that these studies will lay the groundwork for a new concept in regenerative medicine of soft tissue and endocrine organs; i.e. that the organomorphism of a biocompatible scaffold-bioreactor complex is essential to both the 3D organization of seeded stem cells/precursor cells and their phenotypic fate as glandular/parenchymal/vascular elements, eventually leading to a physiologically competent and immuno-tolerant bioconstruct, macroscopically suitable for transplantation and clinical applications.
Authors:
Roberto Toni; Anna Tampieri; Nicoletta Zini; Valentina Strusi; Monica Sandri; Davide Dallatana; Giulia Spaletta; Elena Bassoli; Andrea Gatto; Andrea Ferrari; Ivan Martin
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2011-7-8
Journal Detail:
Title:  Annals of anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger : official organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1618-0402     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2011 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-8-1     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  100963897     Medline TA:  Ann Anat     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Affiliation:
Department of Human Anatomy, Pharmacology and Forensic Medicine, Laboratory of Regenerative Morphology and Bioartificial Structures, University of Parma, Italy; Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Tufts Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.
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