Document Detail

Evolution of the bacteriologic features of persistent acute otitis media compared with acute otitis media: a 15-year study.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  10522507     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVES: To define the epidemiologic features of persistent acute otitis media (PAOM) and modifications of these features during the past 15 years and to investigate for possible differences in bacterial resistance between acute otitis media (AOM) and PAOM. DESIGN: Retrospective patient series. SETTING: Academic tertiary care center. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Persistent acute otitis media was defined as AOM lasting longer than 3 weeks despite 1 or several courses of antibiotic therapy, with the persistence of clinical and otoscopic signs of AOM. From 1982 to 1997, 475 children with PAOM were seen in our department. Every patient had 1 or several specimens of aspirations or swabs of spontaneous otorrhea (or both). Microbiologic characteristics of the isolated strains (including antibiotic susceptibility) were analyzed. Four successive series of specimens were analyzed-group 1: from October 1, 1982, to June 30, 1986 (136 patients); group 2: from January 1, 1987, to December 31, 1989 (165 patients); group 3: from January 1, 1992, to April 30, 1993 (73 patients); and group 4: from January 1, 1994, to January 31, 1997 (101 patients). During the same study periods, the bacteriologic results of patients with AOM in the same geographic region were recorded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A longitudinal comparison between the groups of patients with PAOM and a cross-comparison within each group between patients with PAOM and those with AOM. RESULTS: Obtaining repeated and multiple specimens from patients with PAOM led to a progressive decrease in the rate of sterile specimens, from 35.3% (group 1, 48 patients) to 14.9% (group 4, 15 patients) (P<.01). During this period, the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae increased in patients with positive culture results, from 18.2% (group 1, 16 of 88 patients) to 44.2% (group 4, 38 of 86 patients) (P<.001). These strains rapidly and dramatically became resistant to penicillin (amoxicillin) (0% through 1989, 76.2% [16 of 21 patients] in 1993, and 97.4% [37 of 38 patients] in 1996) (P = .01). The overall prevalence of Haemophilus influenzae remained stable (between 31.4% [27 of 86 patients] and 45.4% [40 of 88 patients]), but the proportion of beta-lactamase-producing strains increased from 30.0% (group 1, 12 patients) to 55.6% (group 4, 15 patients) (P=.04). The prevalences of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus did not vary significantly (from 23.1% [group 2, 30 patients] to 10.7% [group 3, 6 patients] and from 10.2% [group 1, 9 patients] to 4.6% [group 4, 4 patients], respectively). Comparing data from patients with PAOM with those with AOM revealed that the increased resistance of H influenzae and, in particular, of S pneumoniae was more rapid and more marked in patients with PAOM than in those with AOM (highest rate of resistance in AOM: 36.0% [271 of 753 specimens] and 50.6% [398 of 787 specimens] for H influenzae and S pneumoniae, respectively; P<.001 for S pneumoniae). CONCLUSIONS: The increase in bacterial resistance frequently encountered during otitis media is even more marked in patients with PAOM. The identification of the organism is essential when the otitis does not resolve, especially in patients with PAOM. Obtaining repeated specimens helps to decrease the rate of sterile cultures.
N Loundon; G Roger; H Vu Thien; P Bégué; E N Garabédian
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Comparative Study; Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery     Volume:  125     ISSN:  0886-4470     ISO Abbreviation:  Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.     Publication Date:  1999 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1999-10-27     Completed Date:  1999-10-27     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8603209     Medline TA:  Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1134-40     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Department of Pediatric ENT, Hôpital d'Enfants Armand Trousseau, Paris, France.
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MeSH Terms
Acute Disease
Child, Preschool
Drug Resistance, Microbial
France / epidemiology
Haemophilus Infections / epidemiology
Haemophilus influenzae / isolation & purification
Otitis Media / drug therapy,  microbiology*
Pneumococcal Infections / epidemiology
Retrospective Studies

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