Document Detail

Evidence for a novel gonadotropin-releasing hormone in hypothalamic and forebrain areas in songbirds.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  14673197     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
One or more of three distinct forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs), has been found in all vertebrates studied. Birds are known to contain two types of GnRH, chicken GnRH-I and -II (cGnRH-I and -II), but to date nobody has investigated the possibility of the presence of lamprey GnRH-III in birds. Thus, our objective was to investigate the presence and distribution of immunoreactive lamprey (ir-lamprey) GnRH-III in hypothalamic and forebrain areas in house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and Gambel's white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii). In addition to its distribution in the CNS, we investigated whether or not exogenous lamprey GnRH-III peptide could elicit luteinizing hormone (LH) release in vivo. This study presents two novel findings: 1) The widespread presence in the central nervous system of an immunoreactive third GnRH in birds that is clearly hypophysiotropic and has gonadotropin-releasing capabilities. Intravenous injection of 100 ng lamprey-GnRH-III peptide elicited a rapid rise in circulating luteinizing hormone as compared to controls. This third GnRH, ir-lamprey GnRH-III, likely has multiple functions, as suggested by its widespread distribution. 2) Ir-lamprey GnRH-III is present in abundance in telencephalic areas, including the hippocampal formation and the song control system. In no vertebrate has a GnRH been localized in these 'higher' control regions before. The fact that ir-lamprey-GnRH-III is present in auditory processing areas (higher vocal center, or HVc, area X, caudomedial neostriatum) and song-producing areas (HVc, robust nucleus of the neostriatum, or RA) suggests a direct way in which auditory processing and song production can affect circulating gonadotropins.
George E Bentley; Ignacio T Moore; Stacia A Sower; John C Wingfield
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Brain, behavior and evolution     Volume:  63     ISSN:  0006-8977     ISO Abbreviation:  Brain Behav. Evol.     Publication Date:  2004  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2003-12-15     Completed Date:  2004-03-09     Revised Date:  2008-07-11    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0151620     Medline TA:  Brain Behav Evol     Country:  Switzerland    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  34-46     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel
Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / classification,  metabolism*
Hypothalamus / anatomy & histology,  metabolism
Luteinizing Hormone / secretion*
Oligopeptides / classification,  metabolism*
Prosencephalon / anatomy & histology,  metabolism*
Pyrrolidonecarboxylic Acid / analogs & derivatives
Songbirds / anatomy & histology,  metabolism*
Species Specificity
Tissue Distribution
Vocalization, Animal / physiology*
Grant Support
R01 MH65974-01/MH/NIMH NIH HHS; R03 HD39166-01/HD/NICHD NIH HHS
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Oligopeptides; 0/gonadotropin-releasing hormone-III; 33515-09-2/Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 9002-67-9/Luteinizing Hormone; 98-79-3/Pyrrolidonecarboxylic Acid

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