Document Detail

Evidence for the circulation of antimicrobial-resistant strains and genes in nature and especially between humans and animals.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22849279     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Process    
The concern over antibiotic-resistant bacteria producing human infections that are difficult to treat has led to a proliferation of studies in recent years investigating resistance in livestock, food products, the environment and people, as well as in the mechanisms of transfer of the genetic elements of resistance between bacteria, and the routes, or risk pathways, by which the spread of resistance might occur. The possibility of transfer of resistant genetic elements between bacteria in mixed populations adds many additional and complex potential routes of spread. There is now considerable evidence that transfer of antimicrobial resistance from food-producing animals to humans directly via the food chain is a likely route of spread. The application of animal wastes to farmland and subsequent leaching into watercourses has also been shown to lead to many potential, but less well-documented, pathways for spread. Often, however, where contamination of water sources, processed foods, and other environmental sites is concerned, specific routes of circulation are unclear and may well involve human sources of contamination. Examination of water sources in particular may be difficult due to dilution and their natural flow. Also, as meat is comparatively easy to examine, and is frequently suspected of being a source of spread, there is some bias in favour of studying this vehicle. Such complexities mean that, with the evidence currently available, it is not possible to prioritise the importance of potential risk pathways and circulation routes.
M Wooldridge
Related Documents :
18207299 - Elevated toxicant yields with narghile waterpipes smoked using a plastic hose.
19076539 - Total serum ige levels are associated with ambient ozone concentration in asthmatic adu...
23911419 - Macrophages in food allergy: an enigma.
24693559 - Medical devices; general and plastic surgery devices; classification of the absorbable ...
15138449 - Influence of ambient (outdoor) sources on residential indoor and personal pm2.5 concent...
17256489 - Evolution of the snow area index of the subarctic snowpack in central alaska over a who...
11878379 - Reduction of the pesticides oxamyl and methomyl by feii: effect of ph and inorganic lig...
15567339 - Serotonergic mechanism of the lateral parabrachial nucleus and relaxin-induced sodium i...
23427899 - Biomass sustainability and certification.
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Revue scientifique et technique (International Office of Epizootics)     Volume:  31     ISSN:  0253-1933     ISO Abbreviation:  Rev. - Off. Int. Epizoot.     Publication Date:  2012 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-08-01     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8712301     Medline TA:  Rev Sci Tech     Country:  France    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  231-47     Citation Subset:  IM    
Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency (Weybridge), New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, UK.
Export Citation:
APA/MLA Format     Download EndNote     Download BibTex
MeSH Terms

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

Previous Document:  Clinical impact of antimicrobial resistance in animals.
Next Document:  The transfer of antibiotic resistance from food to humans: facts, implications and future directions...