Document Detail

Evidence for increased glutamatergic cortical facilitation in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23303429     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
CONTEXT: Converging lines of evidence implicate the glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid neurotransmitter systems in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder. Transcranial magnetic stimulation cortical excitability and inhibition paradigms have been used to assess cortical glutamatergic and γ-aminobutyric acid-mediated tone in adults with major depressive disorder, but not in children and adolescents.
OBJECTIVE: To compare measures of cortical excitability and inhibition with 4 different paradigms in a group of children and adolescents with major depressive disorder vs healthy controls.
DESIGN: Cross-sectional study examining medication-free children and adolescents (aged 9-17 years) with major depressive disorder compared with healthy controls. Cortical excitability was assessed with motor threshold and intracortical facilitation measures. Cortical inhibition was measured with cortical silent period and intracortical inhibition paradigms.
SETTING: University-based child and adolescent psychiatry clinic and neurostimulation laboratory.
PATIENTS: Twenty-four participants with major depressive disorder and 22 healthy controls matched for age and sex. Patients with major depressive disorder were medication naive and had moderate to severe symptoms based on an evaluation with a child and adolescent psychiatrist and scores on the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Motor threshold, intracortical facilitation, cortical silent period, and intracortical inhibition.
RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls, depressed patients had significantly increased intracortical facilitation at interstimulus intervals of 10 and 15 milliseconds bilaterally. There were no significant group differences in cortical inhibition measures.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that major depressive disorder in children and adolescents is associated with increased intracortical facilitation and excessive glutamatergic activity.
Paul E Croarkin; Paul A Nakonezny; Mustafa M Husain; Tabatha Melton; Jeylan S Buyukdura; Betsy D Kennard; Graham J Emslie; F Andrew Kozel; Zafiris J Daskalakis
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  JAMA psychiatry     Volume:  70     ISSN:  2168-6238     ISO Abbreviation:  JAMA Psychiatry     Publication Date:  2013 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-03-07     Completed Date:  2013-05-02     Revised Date:  2013-12-13    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101589550     Medline TA:  JAMA Psychiatry     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  291-9     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
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MeSH Terms
Case-Control Studies
Cerebral Cortex / metabolism,  physiopathology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depressive Disorder, Major* / metabolism,  physiopathology
Evoked Potentials, Motor
Glutamic Acid / metabolism*
Motor Cortex* / metabolism,  physiopathology
Neural Inhibition
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
gamma-Aminobutyric Acid / metabolism*
Grant Support
//Canadian Institutes of Health Research
Reg. No./Substance:
3KX376GY7L/Glutamic Acid; 56-12-2/gamma-Aminobutyric Acid

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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