Document Detail

Evaluation of the tail formalin test in mice as a new model to assess local analgesic effects.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  15542077     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Opioids are effective topical analgesics in the radiant heat tailflick assay and display synergistic interactions with a number of other classes of drugs. To determine whether these actions extend to other types of nociception, we examined the actions of topical morphine and lidocaine in a tail formalin assay in the mouse. Formalin responses in the tail were similar to those seen in the hind paw, but were limited to licking. Unlike the traditional hind paw assay, the time-course of nociceptive behavior in the tail was monophasic; lasting 40-60 min. Morphine, MK-801 and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) were active systemically in the tail formalin assay with potencies similar to those seen in the second phase of the paw formalin test. Both morphine and lidocaine were active topically in the tail formalin assay, although their time-course of action appeared to be shorter than that of the formalin. However, morphine displayed ceiling effect not seen when it was administered systemically. Lidocaine also had a ceiling effect. When given together, the response to the combination was supra-additive, consistent with our prior studies showing synergy in the radiant heat tailflick assay. These studies validate the formalin assay in the tail and support the topical actions of opioids and other drugs in a second pain model. They also suggest supra-additive interactions between morphine and lidocaine similar to those previously seen. The tail formalin assay will be valuable in assessing the activity of topical drugs.
Yuri Kolesnikov; Marcela Cristea; Galina Oksman; Armen Torosjan; Roger Wilson
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Brain research     Volume:  1029     ISSN:  0006-8993     ISO Abbreviation:  Brain Res.     Publication Date:  2004 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2004-11-15     Completed Date:  2005-01-24     Revised Date:  2007-11-14    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0045503     Medline TA:  Brain Res     Country:  Netherlands    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  217-23     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Memorial-Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Ave, New York, NY 10021, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Analgesics, Opioid / pharmacology*
Anesthetics, Local / pharmacology
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / pharmacology
Aspirin / pharmacology
Disease Models, Animal*
Dizocilpine Maleate / pharmacology
Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists / pharmacology
Lidocaine / pharmacology
Mice, Inbred ICR*
Morphine / pharmacology*
Pain / drug therapy*
Pain Measurement*
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Analgesics, Opioid; 0/Anesthetics, Local; 0/Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0/Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists; 137-58-6/Lidocaine; 50-78-2/Aspirin; 57-27-2/Morphine; 77086-22-7/Dizocilpine Maleate

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