Document Detail

Evaluation of the butter flavoring chemical diacetyl and a fluorochemical paper additive for mutagenicity and toxicity using the mammalian cell gene mutation assay in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  18585428     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Diacetyl (2,3-butanedione) is a yellowish liquid that is usually mixed with other ingredients to produce butter flavor or other flavors in a variety of food products. Inhalation of butter flavoring vapors was first associated with clinical bronchiolitis obliterans among workers in microwave popcorn production. Recent findings have shown irreversible obstructive lung disease among workers not only in the microwave popcorn industry, but also in flavoring manufacture, and in chemical synthesis of diacetyl, a predominant chemical for butter flavoring. It has been reported that perfluorochemicals utilized in food packaging are migrating into foods and may be sources of oral exposure. Relatively small quantities of perfluorochemicals are used in the manufacturing of paper or paperboard that is in direct contact with food to repel oil or grease and water. Because of recent concerns about perfluorochemicals such as those found on microwave popcorn bags (e.g. Lodyne P208E) and diacetyl in foods, we evaluated both compounds for mutagenicity using the mammalian cell gene mutation assay in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells. Lodyne P208E was less toxic than diacetyl and did not induce a mutagenic response. Diacetyl induced a highly mutagenic response in the L5178Y mouse lymphoma mutation assay in the presence of human liver S9 for activation. The increase in the frequency of small colonies in the assay with diacetyl indicates that diacetyl causes damage to multiple loci on chromosome 11 in addition to functional loss of the thymidine kinase locus.
Paul Whittaker; Jane J Clarke; Richard H C San; Timothy H Begley; Virginia C Dunkel
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article     Date:  2008-06-10
Journal Detail:
Title:  Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association     Volume:  46     ISSN:  0278-6915     ISO Abbreviation:  Food Chem. Toxicol.     Publication Date:  2008 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2008-07-21     Completed Date:  2008-09-15     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8207483     Medline TA:  Food Chem Toxicol     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  2928-33     Citation Subset:  IM    
Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch Parkway, HFS-717, College Park, MD 20740-3835, United States.
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MeSH Terms
Cell Line, Tumor
Chlorofluorocarbons, Methane / toxicity*
Chromosome Deletion
Colony-Forming Units Assay
Diacetyl / toxicity*
Flavoring Agents / toxicity*
Hydrocarbons, Fluorinated / toxicity*
Leukemia L5178
Liver / drug effects,  metabolism
Mitosis / drug effects
Mutagenicity Tests
Point Mutation / drug effects
Translocation, Genetic / drug effects
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Chlorofluorocarbons, Methane; 0/Flavoring Agents; 0/Hydrocarbons, Fluorinated; 0/Lodyne P208E; 0/Mutagens; 431-03-8/Diacetyl; 8029-34-3/Butter

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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