Document Detail


Evaluation of polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) as a disinfectant for adenovirus.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23450376     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
IMPORTANCE: Swimming pools can be a vector for transmission of adenovirus ocular infections. Polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) is a disinfectant used in swimming pools and hot tubs.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether PHMB is an effective disinfectant against ocular adenovirus serotypes at a concentration used to disinfect swimming pools and hot tubs.
DESIGN: In vitro laboratory study.
INTERVENTIONS: The direct disinfecting activity of PHMB was determined in triplicate assays by incubating 9 human adenovirus types (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7a, 8, 19, and 37) with PHMB concentrations of 50 and 0 ppm (micrograms per milliliter) for 24 hours at room temperature to simulate swimming pool temperatures or 40oC to simulate hot tub temperatures.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Plaque assays were performed to determine adenovirus titers after incubation. Titers were log10 converted and mean (SD) log10 reductions relative to controls were calculated. Virucidal (>99.9%) decreases in mean adenovirus titers after PHMB treatment were determined for each adenovirus type and temperature tested. RESULTS At room temperature, 50 ppm of PHMB produced mean reductions in titers less than 1 log10 for all adenovirus types tested. At 40°C, 50 ppm of PHMB produced mean reductions in titers less than 1 log10 for 2 adenovirus types and greater than 1 but less than 3 log10 for 7 of 9 adenovirus types.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: At a concentration of 50 ppm, PHMB was not virucidal against adenovirus at temperatures consistent with swimming pools or hot tubs. Recreational water maintained and sanitized with PHMB can serve as a vector for the transmission of ocular adenovirus infections.
Authors:
Eric G Romanowski; Kathleen A Yates; Katherine E O'Connor; Francis S Mah; Robert M Q Shanks; Regis P Kowalski
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural    
Journal Detail:
Title:  JAMA ophthalmology     Volume:  131     ISSN:  2168-6173     ISO Abbreviation:  JAMA Ophthalmol     Publication Date:  2013 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-04-12     Completed Date:  2013-06-05     Revised Date:  2013-10-08    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101589539     Medline TA:  JAMA Ophthalmol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  495-8     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Affiliation:
Eye & Ear Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA. romanowskieg@upmc.edu
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Adenovirus Infections, Human / transmission
Adenoviruses, Human / classification,  drug effects*
Biguanides / pharmacology*
Disease Transmission, Infectious / prevention & control
Disinfectants / pharmacology*
Eye Infections, Viral / prevention & control
Humans
Swimming Pools
Viral Load
Viral Plaque Assay
Grant Support
ID/Acronym/Agency:
AI085570/AI/NIAID NIH HHS; EY08098/EY/NEI NIH HHS; R01 AI085570/AI/NIAID NIH HHS
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Biguanides; 0/Disinfectants; 28757-47-3/polyhexamethylene biguanide
Comments/Corrections

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