Document Detail

Estimation of tsetse challenge and its relationship with trypanosomosis incidence in cattle kept under pastoral production systems in Kenya.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  18602218     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
In an on-farm trial conducted amongst the Maasai pastoralists in Nkuruman and Nkineji areas of Kenya between April 2004 and August 2005 designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a synthetic tsetse repellent technology, we assessed the relationship between tsetse challenge and trypanosomosis incidence in cattle. Six villages were used in each area. Each of these villages had a sentinel cattle herd that was screened for trypanosomosis on monthly basis using buffy coat technique. Animals found infected at each sampling were treated with diminazene aceturate at 7 mg kg(-1) body weight. Treatments administered by the owners over the sampling intervals were recorded as well. Tsetse flies were trapped at the time of sampling using baited stationary traps and apparent tsetse density estimated as flies per trap per day (FTD). A fixed proportion (10%) of the flies was dissected and their infection status determined through microscopy. Blood meals were also collected from some of the flies and their sources identified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Tsetse challenge was obtained as a product of tsetse density, trypanosome prevalence and the proportion of blood meals obtained from cattle. This variable was transformed using logarithmic function and fitted as an independent factor in a Poisson model that had trypanosomosis incidence in the sentinel cattle as the outcome of interest. The mean trypanosomosis incidence in the sentinel group of cattle was 7.2 and 10.2% in Nkuruman and Nkineji, respectively. Glossina pallidipes was the most prevalent tsetse species in Nkuruman while G. swynnertoni was prevalent in Nkineji. The proportions of tsetse that had mature infections in the respective areas were 0.6 and 4.2%. Most tsetse (28%) sampled in Nkuruman had blood meals from warthogs while most of those sampled in Nkineji (30%) had blood meals from cattle. A statistically significant association between tsetse challenge and trypanosomosis incidence was obtained only in Nkuruman when data was pooled and analyzed at the area but not at the village-level. In the later scenario, lagging tsetse challenge by 1 month improved the strength but not the significance of the association. These findings show that when the spatial unit of analysis in observational studies or on-farm trials is small, for instance a village, it may not be possible to demonstrate a statistically significant association between tsetse challenge and trypanosomosis incidence in livestock so as to effectively control for tsetse challenge.
B Bett; P Irungu; S O Nyamwaro; G Murilla; P Kitala; J Gathuma; T F Randolph; J McDermott
Related Documents :
2794168 - Effects of source of protein and carbohydrate on ruminal fermentation and passage of nu...
3883098 - The thermic effect of carbohydrate versus fat feeding in man.
14694208 - Effects of different dietary fat types on postprandial appetite and energy expenditure.
1148148 - The sequential feeding of growing chickens.
20151158 - A study on strategies for improving growth and body composition after renal transplanta...
2750698 - Short-term exposure to high dietary cholesterol in early life: arterial changes and res...
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2008-05-25
Journal Detail:
Title:  Veterinary parasitology     Volume:  155     ISSN:  0304-4017     ISO Abbreviation:  Vet. Parasitol.     Publication Date:  2008 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2008-07-21     Completed Date:  2008-11-26     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7602745     Medline TA:  Vet Parasitol     Country:  Netherlands    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  287-98     Citation Subset:  IM    
Trypanosomiasis Research Centre, Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, P.O. Box 362-00902, Kikuyu, Kenya.
Export Citation:
APA/MLA Format     Download EndNote     Download BibTex
MeSH Terms
Animal Husbandry
Cattle / parasitology*,  physiology*
Feeding Behavior
Host-Parasite Interactions
Insect Repellents
Kenya / epidemiology
Population Density
Regression Analysis
Sentinel Surveillance
Trypanosoma / physiology*
Trypanosomiasis, African / epidemiology,  veterinary*
Trypanosomiasis, Bovine / epidemiology*
Tsetse Flies / parasitology*,  physiology*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Insect Repellents

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

Previous Document:  The endogenous fatty acid amide, palmitoylethanolamide, has anti-allodynic and anti-hyperalgesic eff...
Next Document:  Modifications of the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS-G) for use in longitudinal studies.