Document Detail

Estimating the potential for vitamin A toxicity in women and young children.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  12221269     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
This paper describes usual intakes of vitamin A from diet plus low dose supplements, reviews methods for assessing vitamin A toxicity and applies a kinetic analysis of vitamin A turnover to estimate the effect of high dose supplements on vitamin A liver stores in infants and young children. In the United States, the 95th percentile of intake by preschoolers from foods and supplements exceeds the tolerable upper level (UL) but is below the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL). The 95th percentile of vitamin A intake from foods and supplements for nonpregnant, nonlactating women aged 19-30 y also exceeds the UL but is below the NOAEL for women of reproductive age. In low income populations in developing countries, vitamin A intakes of preschoolers and women consuming foods plus low dose supplements can also exceed the UL but are unlikely to exceed the NOAEL. There are few data on which to establish thresholds for excessive vitamin A intake or vitamin A concentrations in tissues. To assess the potential toxicity of the new recommendations (see article by Ross in this issue) for high dose vitamin A supplements for infants and children, we used a kinetic approach to estimate accumulation of the vitamin in liver. The new recommendations are unlikely to result in toxic levels (>300 microg per gram of liver) even if high dose supplements are inadvertently given monthly. The kinetic analysis also illustrates that a constant supply of vitamin A from breast milk (and/or complementary foods) is vital for preventing depletion of liver vitamin A stores between high dose supplements.
Lindsay H Allen; Marjorie Haskell
Related Documents :
18214019 - The bioavailability of (pro) vitamin a carotenoids and maximizing the contribution of h...
20446889 - Calcium and vitamin d intake by postmenopausal women with osteoporosis in france.
20049159 - Vitamin d pathway genes, diet, and risk of renal cell carcinoma.
12481809 - Swiss chard: a salad crop for the space program.
336289 - Determination of vitamin a in foods--a review.
10333779 - Comparison of energy and nutrient sources of elderly hispanics and non-hispanic whites ...
18713309 - Influence of palatal surface shape of dentures on food perception.
16892269 - Engineering and biotechnological aspects for the manufacturing of high quality fried po...
6685729 - Identification of chlorinated nitrobenzene residues in mississippi river fish.
Publication Detail:
Type:  Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Journal of nutrition     Volume:  132     ISSN:  0022-3166     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Nutr.     Publication Date:  2002 Sep 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2002-09-10     Completed Date:  2002-10-11     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0404243     Medline TA:  J Nutr     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  2907S-2919S     Citation Subset:  IM    
Program in International Nutrition, Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.
Export Citation:
APA/MLA Format     Download EndNote     Download BibTex
MeSH Terms
Child, Preschool
Dietary Supplements / toxicity*
Food Analysis
Food, Fortified / toxicity
Liver / metabolism
Vitamin A / pharmacokinetics,  toxicity*
beta Carotene / toxicity
Reg. No./Substance:
11103-57-4/Vitamin A; 7235-40-7/beta Carotene

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

Previous Document:  Recommendations for vitamin A supplementation.
Next Document:  Consequences of revised estimates of carotenoid bioefficacy for dietary control of vitamin A deficie...