Document Detail


Estimating perchlorate exposure from food and tap water based on US biomonitoring and occurrence data.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20571527     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Human biomonitoring data show that exposure to perchlorate is widespread in the United States. The predominant source of intake is food, whereas drinking water is a less frequent and far smaller contributor. We used spot urine samples for over 2700 subjects and estimated 24 h intake using new creatinine adjustment equations. Merging data from surveys of national health (NHANES) with drinking water monitoring (UCMR), we categorized survey participants according to their potential exposure through drinking water or food. By subtracting daily food doses of perchlorate from the oral reference dose (RfD), we derive an allowances for perchlorate in tap water for several populations. The calculated mean food perchlorate dose in the United States was 0.081 μg/kg/day compared to 0.101 μg/kg/day for those who also had a potential drinking water component. The calculated 95th percentile doses, typically falling between 0.2 and 0.4 μg/kg/day, were well below the RfD (0.7 μg/kg/day) in all populations analyzed. Children aged 6-11 years had the highest mean perchlorate doses in food (0.147 μg/kg/day), with an additional water contribution of only 0.003 μg/kg/day representing just 2% of exposure. Pregnant women had a mean food dose of 0.093 vs 0.071 μg/kg/day for all women of reproductive age. At the 95th percentile intake for both the total population and women of child-bearing age (15-44), the perchlorate contribution from food was 86% and from drinking water 14% (respectively, 30% and 5% of the RfD). At the mean for the same groups, the food to water contribution ratio is approximately 80:20. We calculate that an average 66 kg pregnant woman consuming a 90th percentile food dose (0.198 μg/kg/day) could also drink the 90th percentile of community water for pregnant women (0.033 l/kg/day) containing 15 μg/l perchlorate without exceeding the 0.7 μg/kg/day reference dose.
Authors:
David R Huber; Benjamin C Blount; David T Mage; Frank J Letkiewicz; Amit Kumar; Ruth H Allen
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article     Date:  2010-06-23
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of exposure science & environmental epidemiology     Volume:  21     ISSN:  1559-064X     ISO Abbreviation:  J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol     Publication Date:    2011 Jul-Aug
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-06-21     Completed Date:  2011-10-06     Revised Date:  2012-03-26    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101262796     Medline TA:  J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  395-407     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
US EPA, Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, Washington, DC 20460-0001, USA. huber.david@epa.gov
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Adolescent
Adult
Child
Drinking
Environmental Exposure / analysis*,  statistics & numerical data
Female
Food Contamination / analysis*
Humans
Nutrition Surveys
Perchloric Acid / analysis*,  metabolism,  toxicity
Pregnancy
United States / epidemiology
Water Pollutants, Chemical / analysis*,  metabolism,  toxicity
Water Supply / analysis*,  standards
Young Adult
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Water Pollutants, Chemical; 0/perchlorate; 7601-90-3/Perchloric Acid

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