Document Detail

Estimated historical and current nitrogen balances for Illinois.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  12805881     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The Midwest has large riverine exports of nitrogen (N), with the largest flux per unit area to the Mississippi River system coming from Iowa and Illinois. We used historic and current data to estimate N inputs, outputs, and transformations for Illinois where human activity (principally agriculture and associated landscape drainage) have had a dominant impact. Presently, approximately 800,000 Mg of N is added each year as fertilizer and another 420,000 Mg is biologically fixed, primarily by soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.). These annual inputs are greater than exports in grain, which results in surplus N throughout the landscape. Rivers within the state export approximately 50% of this surplus N, mostly as nitrate, and the remainder appears to be denitrified or temporarily incorporated into the soil organic matter pool. The magnitude of N losses for 1880, 1910, 1950, and 1990 are compared. Initial cultivation of the prairies released large quantities of N (approximately 500,000 Mg N year(-1)), and resulted in riverine N transport during the late 19th century that appears to have been on the same order of magnitude as contemporary N losses. Riverine flux was estimated to have been at a minimum in about 1950, due to diminished net mineralization and low fertilizer inputs. Residual fertilizer N from corn (Zea mays L.), biological N fixed by soybean, short-circuiting of soil water through artificial drainage, and decreased cropping-system diversity appear to be the primary sources for current N export.
M B David; G F McIsaac; T V Royer; R G Darmody; L E Gentry
Publication Detail:
Type:  Historical Article; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2001-10-23
Journal Detail:
Title:  TheScientificWorldJournal     Volume:  1 Suppl 2     ISSN:  1537-744X     ISO Abbreviation:  ScientificWorldJournal     Publication Date:  2001 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2003-06-13     Completed Date:  2004-04-09     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101131163     Medline TA:  ScientificWorldJournal     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  597-604     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana 61801, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Agriculture* / history,  statistics & numerical data
Animals, Domestic
Crops, Agricultural / metabolism
Environmental Pollutants / analysis,  metabolism
Fertilizers / analysis*,  history,  statistics & numerical data
Food Supply
Fresh Water / chemistry*
History, 19th Century
History, 20th Century
Nitrogen / analysis,  metabolism*
Nitrogen Fixation
Soil / analysis
Water Movements
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Environmental Pollutants; 0/Fertilizers; 0/Soil; 7727-37-9/Nitrogen

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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