Document Detail

Epithelial-connective tissue cross-talk is essential for regeneration of intestinal epithelium.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  15834203     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Epithelial cells of the gastrointestine undergo a rapid cell-renewal and originate from stem cells throughout the life of the organisms. Previous studies have provided a solid body of evidence to show that the epithelial cell-renewal is under the strict control of cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions between the epithelium and the connective tissue. Especially, the microenvironment around the stem cells called "niche" is thought to play important roles in this control, and its disruption leads to diseases or disorders such as cancer in the human gastrointestine. Although understanding how the niche affects the stem cells is clinically important, its mechanisms still remain mostly unknown at the molecular level, possibly due to difficulties in the identification of the stem cells in the gastrointestine. Recent progress in cell and molecular biology is gradually beginning to shed light on some of the key signaling pathways in the cell-renewal of the intestinal epithelium, such as Wnt/T-cell factor (TCF)/beta-catenin, Notch, Sonic hedgehog (Shh)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathways, which are also involved in embryonic organogenesis and/or adult carcinogenesis. At present, only fragmentary information is available on their precise functions in the intestine. Nevertheless, there is a growing body of evidence that such signaling pathways have conservative functions in the intestine throughout terrestrial vertebrates, suggesting the usefulness of experimental animals to clarify molecular mechanisms regulating epithelial cell-renewal. In this article, I review some recent findings in this field, with particular focus on our studies using the Xenopus laevis intestine, where the stem cells form the mammalian-type intestinal epithelium under the control of connective tissue during metamorphosis. This Xenopus experimental system will certainly serve as a useful model for the study of the intestinal niche, whose clarification is urgently needed in regenerative medicine.
Atsuko Ishizuya-Oka
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of Nippon Medical School = Nippon Ika Daigaku zasshi     Volume:  72     ISSN:  1345-4676     ISO Abbreviation:  J Nippon Med Sch     Publication Date:  2005 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2005-04-18     Completed Date:  2005-07-19     Revised Date:  2012-09-25    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  100935589     Medline TA:  J Nippon Med Sch     Country:  Japan    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  13-8     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Biology, Nippon Medical School, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 211-0063, Japan.
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MeSH Terms
Apoptosis / genetics
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins / physiology
Connective Tissue / physiology*
Extracellular Matrix / physiology
Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
Hedgehog Proteins
Intestinal Mucosa / cytology,  physiology*
Matrix Metalloproteinase 11
Metalloendopeptidases / physiology
Metamorphosis, Biological / genetics
Regeneration / genetics*
Signal Transduction / genetics*,  physiology*
Stem Cells / cytology,  physiology
Trans-Activators / physiology
Xenopus laevis
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Bone Morphogenetic Proteins; 0/Hedgehog Proteins; 0/SHH protein, human; 0/Trans-Activators; EC 3.4.24.-/Matrix Metalloproteinase 11; EC 3.4.24.-/Metalloendopeptidases

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