|Epidemiology of foodborne norovirus outbreaks, United States, 2001-2008.|
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|PMID: 23017158 Owner: NLM Status: MEDLINE|
|Noroviruses are the leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States. To better guide interventions, we analyzed 2,922 foodborne disease outbreaks for which norovirus was the suspected or confirmed cause, which had been reported to the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention during 2001-2008. On average, 365 foodborne norovirus outbreaks were reported annually, resulting in an estimated 10,324 illnesses, 1,247 health care provider visits, 156 hospitalizations, and 1 death. In 364 outbreaks attributed to a single commodity, leafy vegetables (33%), fruits/nuts (16%), and mollusks (13%) were implicated most commonly. Infected food handlers were the source of 53% of outbreaks and may have contributed to 82% of outbreaks. Most foods were likely contaminated during preparation and service, except for mollusks, and occasionally, produce was contaminated during production and processing. Interventions to reduce the frequency of foodborne norovirus outbreaks should focus on food workers and production of produce and shellfish.|
|Aron J Hall; Valerie G Eisenbart; Amy Lehman Etingüe; L Hannah Gould; Ben A Lopman; Umesh D Parashar|
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|Type: Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.|
|Title: Emerging infectious diseases Volume: 18 ISSN: 1080-6059 ISO Abbreviation: Emerging Infect. Dis. Publication Date: 2012 Oct|
|Created Date: 2012-09-28 Completed Date: 2013-02-19 Revised Date: 2013-07-11|
Medline Journal Info:
|Nlm Unique ID: 9508155 Medline TA: Emerg Infect Dis Country: United States|
|Languages: eng Pagination: 1566-73 Citation Subset: IM|
|Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA. email@example.com|
|APA/MLA Format Download EndNote Download BibTex|
Caliciviridae Infections / epidemiology*, virology
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.)
Food Handling / methods
Foodborne Diseases / epidemiology*, etiology, virology*
Fruit / virology
Mollusca / virology
Norovirus / isolation & purification*
Population Surveillance / methods
Shellfish / virology
United States / epidemiology
Vegetables / virology
Journal ID (nlm-ta): Emerg Infect Dis
Journal ID (iso-abbrev): Emerging Infect. Dis
Journal ID (publisher-id): EID
Publisher: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Print publication date: Month: 10 Year: 2012
Volume: 18 Issue: 10
First Page: 1566 Last Page: 1573
PubMed Id: 23017158
Publisher Id: 12-0833
|Epidemiology of Foodborne Norovirus Outbreaks, United States, 2001–2008 Alternate Title:Foodborne Norovirus Outbreaks|
|Aron J. Hall|
|Valerie G. Eisenbart|
|Amy Lehman Etingüe|
|L. Hannah Gould|
|Ben A. Lopman|
|Umesh D. Parashar|
|Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (A.J. Hall, V.G. Eisenbart, A. Lehman Etingüe, L.H. Gould, B.A. Lopman, U.D. Parashar);
|University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, USA (V.G. Eisenbart);
|and North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA (A. Lehman Etingüe)
Medscape, LLC is pleased to provide online continuing medical education (CME) for this journal article, allowing clinicians the opportunity to earn CME credit.
This activity has been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education through the joint sponsorship of Medscape, LLC and Emerging Infectious Diseases. Medscape, LLC is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
Medscape, LLC designates this Journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)TM. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.
All other clinicians completing this activity will be issued a certificate of participation. To participate in this journal CME activity: (1) review the learning objectives and author disclosures; (2) study the education content; (3) take the post-test with a 70% minimum passing score and complete the evaluation at www.medscape.org/journal/eid; (4) view/print certificate.
Release date: September 17, 2012; Expiration date: September 17, 2013
Upon completion of this activity, participants will be able to:
- Describe general characteristics and outcomes of US norovirus outbreaks, based on an analysis of data reported during 2001-2008 to the CDC Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System
- Describe sources of US norovirus outbreaks, based on an analysis of data reported during 2001-2008 to the CDC Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System
- Describe recommended interventions to reduce the frequency and effects of foodborne norovirus outbreaks, based on an analysis of data reported during 2001-2008 to the CDC Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System
Carol E. Snarey, MA, Technical Writer/Editor, Emerging Infectious Diseases. Disclosure: Carol E. Snarey, MA, has disclosed no relevant financial relationships.
Laurie Barclay, MD, freelance writer and reviewer, Medscape, LLC. Disclosure: Laurie Barclay, MD, has disclosed no relevant financial relationships.
Disclosures:Aron J. Hall, DVM, MSPH; Valerie G. Eisenbart, DVM; Amy Lehman Etingüe, DVM; L. Hannah Gould, PhD; Ben A. Lopman, PhD;andUmesh D. Parashar, MBBS,have disclosed no relevant financial relationships.
Suggested citation for this article: Hall AJ, Eisenbart VG, Etingüe AL, Gould LH, Lopman BA, Parashar UD. Epidemiology of foodborne norovirus outbreaks, United States, 2001–2008. Emerg Infect Dis [Internet]. 2012 Oct [date cited]. http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1810.120833
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