Document Detail

Epidemiological research drives a paradigm shift in complementary feeding - the celiac disease story and lessons learnt.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20664217     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Breast milk is the initial natural food for infants, but already during the second half year complementary feeding is essential. Epidemiological research, first on celiac disease and later on atopic diseases, has driven a paradigm shift with respect to most favorable age to introduce complementary feeding. Simplified, this implies a shift from later to earlier introduction, which is now taken into account in recommendations on infant feeding. Complementary feeding, including all foods, should not be initiated for any infant before 4 months of age, and not later than around 6 months, including infants with elevated disease risk (e.g. for celiac disease or atopic diseases). Motivating reasons could be that ongoing breastfeeding provides an 'immunological umbrella' and/ or a different age interval gives a 'window of opportunity' for developing oral tolerance towards gluten and other food antigens. This will for some infants be in conflict with recent WHO recommendations on exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months. Epidemiology has evolved over time and could, if increasingly used, contribute even more to innovations in pediatric nutrition and other phenomena related to population health.
Katrina Nordyke; Cecilia Olsson; Olle Hernell; Anneli Ivarsson
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2010-07-21
Journal Detail:
Title:  Nestlé Nutrition workshop series. Paediatric programme     Volume:  66     ISSN:  1661-6677     ISO Abbreviation:  Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Pediatr Program     Publication Date:  2010  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-07-28     Completed Date:  2011-01-03     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101244056     Medline TA:  Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Pediatr Program     Country:  Switzerland    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  65-79     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Departments of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health, Pediatrics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
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MeSH Terms
Breast Feeding
Celiac Disease / epidemiology,  prevention & control*
Child Nutrition Sciences / trends*
Diffusion of Innovation
Epidemiologic Studies*
Feeding Methods / trends*
Health Promotion / trends*
Immune System / physiology,  physiopathology
Infant Food* / adverse effects
Models, Biological

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