Document Detail


Epidemiologic investigation of lead poisoning in trumpeter and tundra swans in Washington State, USA, 2000-2002.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  16870857     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
An observational study was conducted to determine the proportionate mortality of wild trumpeter (Cygnus buccinator) and tundra (Cygnus columbianus columbianus) swans that died during the winters of 2000-02 in northwestern Washington State, USA. Among 400 swans necropsied, 81% were lead poisoned (302/365 trumpeter swans; 20/35 tundra swans). Mortality started in mid-November and peaked from late December through mid-February; swan mortality that was not associated with lead poisoning was uniformly lower throughout the winter months. Lead poisoning was 24 times more likely to be the cause of death in swans found in Whatcom County compared to swans found in other locations in northwestern Washington State (95% CI: 12.7, 47.0). Mortality attributable to lead poisoning was twice as likely in adults as in juveniles (95% CI: 1.0, 4.2). Aspergillosis was documented in 62 trumpeter and two tundra swans, including 37 swans in which mortality was caused by lead poisoning. Males were twice as likely as females to have aspergillosis (95% CI: 1.1, 3.8). Traumatic injuries were documented in 37 trumpeter and seven tundra swans, including seven trumpeter swans with concurrent lead poisoning. Dead swans found outside Whatcom County were four times more likely to have traumatic injuries compared to those found in Whatcom County (95% CI: 1.6, 10.0). Overall, lead-poisoned swans were significantly less likely to have concurrent aspergillosis or traumatic injuries. There was no apparent association between grit ingestion (total mass or mass categorized by size) and lead poisoning or number of lead shot. Not surprisingly, lead-poisoned swans were more likely to have one or more lead shot compared to swans that died from other causes (OR 294; 95% CI: 92, 1,005); lead-poisoned swans were also more likely to have one or more nontoxic shot compared to swans that were not poisoned (OR 63; 95% CI: 19, 318). The source(s) of shot are unknown but likely are in or near Whatcom County, Washington.
Authors:
Laurel Degernes; Sarah Heilman; Maureen Trogdon; Martha Jordan; Mike Davison; Don Kraege; Maria Correa; Peter Cowen
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of wildlife diseases     Volume:  42     ISSN:  0090-3558     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Wildl. Dis.     Publication Date:  2006 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2006-07-27     Completed Date:  2006-09-19     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0244160     Medline TA:  J Wildl Dis     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  345-58     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27606, USA. laurel_degernes@ncsu.edu
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Animals
Aspergillosis / epidemiology,  mortality,  veterinary
Bird Diseases / epidemiology,  mortality*
Birds
Cause of Death
Female
Food Chain*
Food Contamination / analysis
Lead / analysis*
Lead Poisoning / epidemiology,  mortality,  veterinary*
Male
Prevalence
Seasons
Washington / epidemiology
Wounds and Injuries / epidemiology,  mortality,  veterinary
Wounds, Gunshot / epidemiology,  mortality,  veterinary
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
7439-92-1/Lead

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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