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Enzymatic glycosylation of multivalent scaffolds.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23348496     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
The design of glycoclusters, glycodendrimers, glycopolymers and other complex glycostructures that mimic the multivalent carbohydrate display on the cell surface is of immense interest for diagnosis and therapy. This review presents a detailed insight into the exciting possibilities of multiple glycosylation using enzymes, particularly glycosyltransferases (EC 2.4). A representative choice of available scaffolds for the enzyme action is practically infinite and comprises synthetic polymers, carbosilane dendrimers, multiantennary glycans or hyperbranched conjugates. The introduced glyco-patterns range from common sialyl Lewis(x) and sialyl lacto-chains to chemically functionalized carbohydrate units for detection purposes. The possibilities of in vitro enzymatic production of N- and O-glycans and other natural polymers are also discussed. In harmony with their natural tasks, glycosyltransferases may in vitro complete the imperfect glycosylation pattern of proteins, recombinantly produced in pro- and eukaryotic hosts. What is more, the required enzymatic battery may be directly co-expressed with the protein, in order to elegantly accomplish the production of eukaryotic glycans. Ingenious metabolic labeling enables facile imaging of glycostructures. The boom of glycoarray technology opens vast possibilities in high-throughput screening for novel enzymes and substrate specificities as well as in the synthesis. Though there is still a long way until the Nature's ideal of multivalent glycans is achievable in the laboratory, the sketched pathways to multivalent glycostructures open tremendous possibilities for the future glycobiological research.
Authors:
Pavla Bojarová; Ruben R Rosencrantz; Lothar Elling; Vladimír Křen
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2013-1-24
Journal Detail:
Title:  Chemical Society reviews     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1460-4744     ISO Abbreviation:  Chem Soc Rev     Publication Date:  2013 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-1-25     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0335405     Medline TA:  Chem Soc Rev     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Affiliation:
Institute of Microbiology, Center for Biocatalysis and Biotransformation, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Vídeňská 1083, CZ 142 20, Prague 4, Czech Republic. kren@biomed.cas.cz.
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