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Environmental Perchlorate and Thiocyanate Exposures and Infant Serum Thyroid Function.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22616630     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Background: Breastfed infants rely on maternal iodine for thyroid hormone production required for neurodevelopment. Dietary iodine among women of childbearing age in the United States may be insufficient. Perchlorate (competitive inhibitor of the sodium/iodide symporter [NIS]) exposure is ubiquitous. Thiocyanate, from cigarettes and diet, is a weaker NIS inhibitor. Environmental perchlorate and thiocyanate exposures could decrease breastmilk iodine by competitively inhibiting NIS in lactating breasts (thus impairing infants' iodine availability) and/or infants' thyroidal NIS to directly decrease infant thyroid function. The current study assessed the relationships between environmental perchlorate and thiocyanate exposures and infant serum thyroid function. Methods: Iodine, perchlorate, and thiocyanate in breastmilk, maternal and infant urine, and infant serum thyroid function were cross-sectionally measured in Boston-area women and their 1-3 month-old breastfed infants. Univariate and multivariable analyses assessed relationships between iodine, perchlorate, thiocyanate, TSH, and FT4 levels. Results: In 64 mothers and infants, median (range) iodine levels were 45.6 µg/L (4.3-1,080) in breastmilk, 101.9 µg/L (27-570) in maternal urine, and 197.5 µg/L (40-785) in infant urine. Median perchlorate concentrations were 4.4 µg/L (0.5-29.5) in breastmilk, 3.1 µg/L (0.2-22.4) in maternal urine, and 4.7 µg/L (0.3-25.3) in infant urine. There were no correlations between infant TSH or FT4 and iodine, perchlorate, and thiocyanate levels in breastmilk, maternal urine, and infant urine. In multivariable analyses, perchlorate and thiocyanate levels in breastmilk, maternal urine, and infant urine were not significant predictors of infant TSH or FT4. Conclusions: Boston-area mothers and their breastfed infants are generally iodine-sufficient. Although environmental perchlorate and thiocyanate are ubiquitous, these results do not support the concern that maternal and infant environmental perchlorate and thiocyanate exposures affect infant thyroid function.
Angela Leung; Lewis E Braverman; Xuemei He; Kristin E Schuller; Alexandra Roussilhes; Katie Jahreis; Elizabeth Pearce
Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-5-22
Journal Detail:
Title:  Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1557-9077     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2012 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-5-23     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9104317     Medline TA:  Thyroid     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Boston University Medical Center, Section of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Nutrition, Evans-201, 88 East Newton St, Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02118;
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