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Environmental and Genetical Aspects of the Link Between Pregnancy, Birth Size, and Type 2 Diabetes.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22497653     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Exposure of the fetus to the intrauterine milieu can have profound effects on the health of the offspring in adulthood. These observations are highly reproducible in many populations worldwide although the mechanisms behind them remain elusive. The 'thrifty phenotype' hypothesis proposes that poor fetal nutrition leads to programming of metabolism and an adult phenotype that is adapted to poor but not plentiful nutrition. Results of a series of studies demonstrate the powerful influence of the mother's metabolic state on whether the emerging adult develops obesity and hyperinsulinemia. Importantly, these attributes can be passed on to the next generation non-genetically and can be reversed and prevented. Such hypothesis has been expanded on by the "Developmental Origins of Health and Disease" (DOHaD) hypothesis which describes the origin of adult disease in terms of fetal developmental 'plasticity' or the ability of the fetus to respond to poor in-utero conditions. A wealth of epidemiological evidence has provided a convincing link between a sub-optimal gestational environment and an increased propensity to develop adult onset metabolic disease. In this paper the factors that participate in the programming of the fetus and infants that lead to endocrine dysfunction in postnatal life are reviewed.
Authors:
A Vignini; F Raffaelli; A Cester; A Iannilli; V Cherubini; L Mazzanti; L Nanetti
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-4-12
Journal Detail:
Title:  Current diabetes reviews     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1875-6417     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2012 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-4-13     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101253260     Medline TA:  Curr Diabetes Rev     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Affiliation:
Department of DISCO, Polytechnic University of Marche, School of Medicine, Via Tronto 10 A, 60100 Ancona, Italy. vignini2@libero.it.
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