Document Detail

Enhancing essential amino acids and health benefit components in grain crops for improved nutritional values.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  19673700     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Improving essential amino acids or protein content, along with other phytonutrients in the food crops, will affect a great portion of the world population, especially in developing countries where rice grain is the main source of protein. Malnutrition, including deficiencies in protein/energy, iron/zinc, vitamin A, and iodine, causes a total 24,000 deaths per day worldwide. The problem is severe where rice is the major staple food. Protein deficiency involves both the quantity (amount) and quality (the content in essential amino acids) of the dietary protein. Various interventions, such as distribution, fortification, dietary diversification, and measures against infectious diseases, have been applied to reduce deficiency disorders. The problem, however, remains unsolved. Developing genetically novel lines with elevated content of essential amino acids together with other health benefit components becomes more feasible for the enhancement of breeding techniques, genomics, molecular manipulations, and genetic engineering. Advancement in basic genetic and genetic engineering has resulted in successful enrichment of some essential amino acids, such as lysine (Lys), tryptophan (Trp), and methionine (Met). Successful genetic enhancement has been largely restricted to the maize crop through enrichment of grain Lys and to some extends Trp. Since rice is the main source of calories and protein intake for billions of people, enhancing essential amino acids in rice represents a tremendous challenge. This paper will discuss and review the current status in basic genetics, molecular genetics, and genetic engineering associated with the enhancement of amino acids and other health benefit components in major grain crop improvement. Patents and future efforts associated with enhancing nutritional quality of the grain will also be reviewed as a concerted effort to solve the malnutrition problem and improve the quality of life worldwide.
Ida Wenefrida; Herry S Utomo; Sterling B Blanche; S D Linscombe
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Recent patents on DNA & gene sequences     Volume:  3     ISSN:  2212-3431     ISO Abbreviation:  Recent Pat DNA Gene Seq     Publication Date:  2009  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2009-11-20     Completed Date:  2009-12-07     Revised Date:  2012-03-13    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101299745     Medline TA:  Recent Pat DNA Gene Seq     Country:  United Arab Emirates    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  219-25     Citation Subset:  IM    
Rice Research Station, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Rayne, LA 70578, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Amino Acids, Essential / chemistry,  genetics,  metabolism*
Cereals / chemistry*,  genetics,  metabolism
Crops, Agricultural / chemistry*,  genetics,  metabolism
Functional Food*
Plant Proteins / chemistry,  genetics,  metabolism
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Amino Acids, Essential; 0/Plant Proteins

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