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Energetics of swimming: a historical perspective.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20428884     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
The energy cost to swim a unit distance (C (sw)) is given by the ratio [Formula: see text] where [Formula: see text] is the net metabolic power and v is the swimming speed. The contribution of the aerobic and anaerobic energy sources to [Formula: see text] in swimming competitions is independent of swimming style, gender or skill and depends essentially upon the duration of the exercise. C (sw) is essentially determined by the hydrodynamic resistance (W (d)): the higher W (d) the higher C (sw); and by the propelling efficiency (η (P)): the higher η (P) the lower C (sw). Hence, all factors influencing W (d) and/or η (P) result in proportional changes in C (sw). Maximal metabolic power [Formula: see text] and C (sw) are the main determinants of swimming performance; an improvement in a subject's best performance time can more easily be obtained by a reduction of C (sw) rather than by an (equal) increase in [Formula: see text] (in either of its components, aerobic or anaerobic). These sentences, which constitute a significant contribution to today's knowledge about swimming energetics, are based on the studies that Professor Pietro Enrico di Prampero and his co-workers carried out since the 1970s. This paper is devoted to examine how this body of work helped to improve our understanding of this fascinating mode of locomotion.
Authors:
P Zamparo; C Capelli; D Pendergast
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article     Date:  2010-04-27
Journal Detail:
Title:  European journal of applied physiology     Volume:  111     ISSN:  1439-6327     ISO Abbreviation:  Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.     Publication Date:  2011 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-02-17     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  100954790     Medline TA:  Eur J Appl Physiol     Country:  Germany    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  367-78     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Dipartimento di Scienze Neurologiche e della Visione, Facoltà di Scienze Motorie, Università di Verona, via Casorati 43, 37141, Verona, Italy, paola.zamparo@univr.it.
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