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Endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine placental mediators in labor.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23422762     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Considering that preterm birth accounts for about 6-10% of all births in Western countries and of more than 65% of all perinatal deaths, elucidation of the particularly complicated mechanisms of labor is essential for determination of appropriate and effective therapeutic interventions. Labor in humans results from a complex interplay of fetal and maternal factors, which act upon the uterus to trigger pathways leading gradually to a coordinated cervical ripening and myometrial contractility. Although the exact mechanism of labor still remains uncertain, several components have been identified and described in detail. Based on the major role played by the human placenta in pregnancy and the cascade of labor processes activated via placental mediators exerting endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine actions, this review article has aimed at presenting the role of these mediators in term and preterm labor and the molecular pathways of their actions. Some of the aforementioned mediators are involved in myometrial activation and preparation and others in myometrial stimulation leading to delivery. In the early stages of pregnancy, myometrial molecules, like progesterone, nitric oxide, and relaxin, contribute to the retention of pregnancy. At late stages of gestation, fetal hypothalamus maturation signals act on the placenta causing the production of hormones, including CRH, in an endocrine manner; the signals then enhance paracrinically the production of more hormones, such as estrogens and neuropeptides, that contribute to cervical ripening and uterine contractility. These molecules act directly on the myometrium through specific receptors, while cytokines and multiple growth factors are also produced, additionally contributing to labor. In situations leading to preterm labor, as in maternal stress and fetal infection, cytokines trigger placental signaling sooner, thus leading to preterm birth.
Authors:
Zoe Iliodromiti; Nikolaos Antonakopoulos; Stavros Sifakis; Panagiotis Tsikouras; Angelos Daniilidis; Kostantinos Dafopoulos; Dimitrios Botsis; Nikolaos Vrachnis
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Hormones (Athens, Greece)     Volume:  11     ISSN:  1109-3099     ISO Abbreviation:  Hormones (Athens)     Publication Date:  2012 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-02-20     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101142469     Medline TA:  Hormones (Athens)     Country:  Greece    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  397-409     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
2nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Athens Medical School, Aretaieio Hospital, Athens, Greece.
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