Document Detail

Emotion regulation and heterogeneity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23357443     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVE: How best to capture heterogeneity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using biomarkers has been elusive. This study evaluated whether emotion reactivity and regulation provide a means to achieve this.
METHOD: Participants were classified into three groups: children with ADHD plus low prosocial behavior (hypothesized to be high in callous/unemotional traits; n = 21); children with ADHD with age-appropriate prosocial behavior (n = 54); and typically developing children (n = 75). Children completed a task with four conditions: negative induction, negative suppression, positive induction, and positive suppression of affect. The task required children to view an emotion-laden film clip, while either facially mimicking (induction) or masking (suppression) the emotion of the main character. Parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system activity were assessed via respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and cardiac pre-ejection period (PEP), respectively. Symptoms of anxiety, conduct, and oppositional defiant disorders were treated as covariates.
RESULTS: The ADHD-typical-prosocial group displayed atypically elevated parasympathetic reactivity (emotion dysregulation) during positive induction, along with increased sympathetic activity (elevated arousal) across conditions. In contrast, the ADHD-low-prosocial group displayed reduced parasympathetic reactivity and reduced sympathetic activity (low emotional arousal) across baseline and task conditions. Thus, both ADHD groups had altered patterns of autonomic functioning, but in two distinct forms.
CONCLUSION: Although ADHD is heterogeneous clinically, results suggest that ADHD is also heterogeneous with regard to physiological indices of emotion and regulation. Future studies of emotion, regulation, and ADHD should take this into account. Further study of physiological responding in ADHD may yield clinically and etiologically distinct domains or groups.
Erica D Musser; Hilary S Galloway-Long; Paul J Frick; Joel T Nigg
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry     Volume:  52     ISSN:  1527-5418     ISO Abbreviation:  J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry     Publication Date:  2013 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-01-29     Completed Date:  2013-12-31     Revised Date:  2014-03-19    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8704565     Medline TA:  J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  163-171.e2     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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MeSH Terms
Anxiety / physiopathology
Arousal / physiology
Attention / physiology
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity* / diagnosis,  physiopathology,  psychology
Behavior Control / methods,  psychology
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Emotions / physiology*
Heart Function Tests / methods
Parasympathetic Nervous System / physiopathology*
Psychological Tests
Social Behavior*
Sympathetic Nervous System / physiopathology*
Grant Support

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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