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Effort- and time-cost effects on demand curves for food by pigeons under short session closed economies.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  11254991     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Demand curves for food were compared under the effort- and time-cost conditions using response-initiated fixed-ratio (FR) and fixed-interval (FI) schedules. For the effort-cost conditions, two pigeons were exposed to FR 3, 30, 90, and 150 for six sessions each. The time equivalent of each ratio was a FI schedule, each FI value equal to an average time from the first peck on the ratio to reinforcement (3-s access to mixed grain). The experiment was repeated in 1.5-, 3.0-, and 4.5-h closed economies in a different order for each pigeon. Food consumption as a function of time-based unit price (time equivalent per reinforcement duration) for each session length showed moderate convergence on a single demand function for the two cost conditions. When the demand function was separately fitted to each cost condition, however, the ranges of inelastic demand were generally larger in time-cost than effort-cost conditions. These curve-fitting analyses suggest that although time is a critical cost factor decreasing consumption at moderate prices, food intake under the effort-cost condition decreases more rapidly than under the time-cost condition as unit price increases. The analyses provide useful descriptions for the functional difference of costs.
S Tsunematsu
Publication Detail:
Journal Detail:
Title:  Behavioural processes     Volume:  53     ISSN:  1872-8308     ISO Abbreviation:  Behav. Processes     Publication Date:  2001 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2001-Mar-19     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7703854     Medline TA:  Behav Processes     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  47-56     Citation Subset:  -    
Department of Psychology, Ritsumeikan University, Kita-ku, 603-8577, Kyoto, Japan
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