Document Detail

Effort-related functions of nucleus accumbens dopamine and associated forebrain circuits.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  17225164     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
BACKGROUND: Over the last several years, it has become apparent that there are critical problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA) systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Hypotheses related to DA function are undergoing a substantial restructuring, such that the classic emphasis on hedonia and primary reward is giving way to diverse lines of research that focus on aspects of instrumental learning, reward prediction, incentive motivation, and behavioral activation.
OBJECTIVE: The present review discusses dopaminergic involvement in behavioral activation and, in particular, emphasizes the effort-related functions of nucleus accumbens DA and associated forebrain circuitry.
RESULTS: The effects of accumbens DA depletions on food-seeking behavior are critically dependent upon the work requirements of the task. Lever pressing schedules that have minimal work requirements are largely unaffected by accumbens DA depletions, whereas reinforcement schedules that have high work (e.g., ratio) requirements are substantially impaired by accumbens DA depletions. Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related decision making. Rats with accumbens DA depletions reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead, these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior.
CONCLUSIONS: Along with prefrontal cortex and the amygdala, nucleus accumbens is a component of the brain circuitry regulating effort-related functions. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue, or anergia in depression.
J D Salamone; M Correa; A Farrar; S M Mingote
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Review     Date:  2007-01-16
Journal Detail:
Title:  Psychopharmacology     Volume:  191     ISSN:  0033-3158     ISO Abbreviation:  Psychopharmacology (Berl.)     Publication Date:  2007 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2007-03-05     Completed Date:  2007-06-12     Revised Date:  2014-03-25    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7608025     Medline TA:  Psychopharmacology (Berl)     Country:  Germany    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  461-82     Citation Subset:  IM    
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MeSH Terms
Choice Behavior
Conditioning, Operant
Depression / metabolism,  psychology
Dopamine / metabolism*
Fatigue / metabolism,  psychology
Feeding Behavior
Motor Activity
Neural Pathways / metabolism
Neurotransmitter Agents / metabolism*
Nucleus Accumbens / metabolism*
Physical Exertion*
Prosencephalon / metabolism*
Psychomotor Performance
Reinforcement (Psychology)
Substance-Related Disorders / metabolism,  psychology
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Neurotransmitter Agents; VTD58H1Z2X/Dopamine

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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