Document Detail

Efficacy of organic acids in hand cleansers for prevention of rhinovirus infections.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  15215114     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Direct hand-to-hand contact is an important mechanism of transmission of rhinovirus infection. The rhinoviruses are inactivated at a low pH. A survey of organic acids in vitro revealed that these compounds have antirhinoviral activity that persists for at least 3 h after application to the skin. In additional studies of salicylic acid (SA) and pyroglutamic acid (PGA), the hands of volunteers were contaminated with rhinovirus at defined times after application of the acid, and then volunteers attempted to inoculate the nasal mucosa with one hand and quantitative viral cultures were done on the other hand. In one study, 3.5% SA or 1% SA with 3.5% PGA was compared with controls 15 min after application to assess the efficacy of the inactivation of virus and prevention of infection. Virus was recovered from the hands of 28 out of 31 (90%) of the volunteers in the control group compared to 4 out of 27 (15%) and 0 out of 27 in the groups administered 3.5 and 1% SA, respectively (P < 0.05). Rhinovirus infection occurred in 10 out of 31 (32%) of the controls and 2 out of 27 (7%) of volunteers in both treatment groups (P < 0.05 compared with control). In a second study, the efficacy of 4% PGA was evaluated 15 min, 1 h, and 3 h after application. Significantly fewer volunteers had positive hand cultures at all time points compared with the control group, but the proportion that developed rhinovirus infection was not significantly reduced. These results suggest the feasibility of the prevention of rhinovirus transmission by hand treatments that are virucidal on contact and have activity that persists after application.
Ronald B Turner; Kim A Biedermann; Jeffery M Morgan; Bruce Keswick; Keith D Ertel; Mark F Barker
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy     Volume:  48     ISSN:  0066-4804     ISO Abbreviation:  Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.     Publication Date:  2004 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2004-06-24     Completed Date:  2004-09-07     Revised Date:  2009-11-18    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0315061     Medline TA:  Antimicrob Agents Chemother     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  2595-8     Citation Subset:  IM    
University of Virginia School of Medicine, P.O. Box 800386, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Collagen / chemistry
Common Cold / prevention & control*,  virology
Double-Blind Method
Hand / virology*
Skin / virology
Soaps / analysis*,  therapeutic use*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Acids; 0/Soaps; 9007-34-5/Collagen

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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