Document Detail

Effects of treatment on cardiovascular risk among smokeless tobacco users.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  7479625     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
BACKGROUND: Studies show sustained levels of nicotine among young males using smokeless tobacco, causing concern for subsequent cardiovascular risk. Also, there is little information on effects of nicotine replacement on cardiovascular risk in cessation programs. This study investigates the effects of nicotine gum replacement in smokeless tobacco cessation on cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: Smokeless tobacco users, ages 18-65, were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to 2-mg nicotine or placebo gum. At baseline, Week 4, and Week 8, dependent measurements, heart rate, blood pressure, and weight were recorded, and fasting lipoprotein profiles were drawn. RESULTS: This paper focuses on the smokeless tobacco users who refrained from use during the study period (N = 56). The nicotine gum group weighed less (P = 0.033) than the placebo group throughout the study and weight increased at a significant rate between Weeks 4 and 8 for both groups as gum decreased. Triglycerides were higher for the nicotine gum group than the placebo group (P = 0.031), with triglycerides decreasing between Weeks 4 and 8, with a similar effect seen among nonabstinent smokeless tobacco users. There was no dose, time, or dose by time effect for the other dependent measures. CONCLUSIONS: Among smokeless tobacco users who were abstinent, weight increased, with subjects on nicotine gum weighing less throughout the study. The lipoprotein profile, heart rate, and blood pressure did not improve over time, contrary to smokers in whom HDL increases and heart rate decreases with cessation. This could relate to different routes of administration, pharmacokinetics, or by-products of tobacco smoking being absent in smokeless tobacco. In addition, nicotine gum appeared to have neither an adverse nor a positive effect on heart rate, blood pressure, LDL, HDL, or total cholesterol.
S S Allen; D Hatsukami; J Jensen; M Grillo; R Bliss
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Preventive medicine     Volume:  24     ISSN:  0091-7435     ISO Abbreviation:  Prev Med     Publication Date:  1995 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1995-12-06     Completed Date:  1995-12-06     Revised Date:  2007-11-14    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0322116     Medline TA:  Prev Med     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  357-62     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Family Practice, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis 55455, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Blood Pressure / drug effects
Body Weight / drug effects
Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control*
Chewing Gum
Chi-Square Distribution
Cholesterol / metabolism
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Double-Blind Method
Heart Rate / drug effects
Lipoproteins / drug effects,  metabolism
Middle Aged
Nicotine / pharmacology*
Plants, Toxic*
Regression Analysis
Tobacco Use Disorder / metabolism,  rehabilitation*
Tobacco, Smokeless / pharmacology*
Triglycerides / metabolism
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Chewing Gum; 0/Lipoproteins; 0/Triglycerides; 54-11-5/Nicotine; 57-88-5/Cholesterol

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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