Document Detail

Effects of stress on alcohol drinking: a review of animal studies.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21850445     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
RATIONALE: While stress is often proposed to play a significant role in influencing alcohol consumption, the relationship between stress and alcohol is complex and poorly understood. Over several decades, stress effects on alcohol drinking have been studied using a variety of animal models and experimental procedures, yet this large body of literature has generally produced equivocal results.
OBJECTIVES: This paper reviews results from animal studies in which alcohol consumption is evaluated under conditions of acute/sub-chronic stress exposure or models of chronic stress exposure. Evidence also is presented indicating that chronic intermittent alcohol exposure serves as a stressor that consequently influences drinking.
RESULTS: The effects of various acute/sub-chronic stress procedures on alcohol consumption have generally been mixed, but most study outcomes suggest either no effect or decreased alcohol consumption. In contrast, most studies indicate that chronic stress, especially when administered early in development, results in elevated drinking later in adulthood. Chronic alcohol exposure constitutes a potent stressor itself, and models of chronic intermittent alcohol exposure reliably produce escalation of voluntary alcohol consumption.
CONCLUSIONS: A complex and dynamic interplay among a wide array of genetic, biological, and environmental factors govern stress responses, regulation of alcohol drinking, and the circumstances in which stress modulates alcohol consumption. Suggestions for future directions and new approaches are presented that may aid in developing more sensitive and valid animal models that not only better mimic the clinical situation, but also provide greater understanding of mechanisms that underlie the complexity of stress effects on alcohol drinking.
Howard C Becker; Marcelo F Lopez; Tamara L Doremus-Fitzwater
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review     Date:  2011-08-18
Journal Detail:
Title:  Psychopharmacology     Volume:  218     ISSN:  1432-2072     ISO Abbreviation:  Psychopharmacology (Berl.)     Publication Date:  2011 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-10-12     Completed Date:  2012-02-08     Revised Date:  2013-06-28    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7608025     Medline TA:  Psychopharmacology (Berl)     Country:  Germany    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  131-56     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Charleston Alcohol Research Center, Center for Drug and Alcohol Programs, 67 President Street, MSC 861, Charleston, SC 29425, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Alcohol Drinking / epidemiology,  psychology*
Disease Models, Animal
Ethanol / administration & dosage*
Stress, Psychological*
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:

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