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Effects of low-load resistance training combined with blood flow restriction or hypoxia on muscle function and performance in netball athletes.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22999393     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of blood flow restriction or normobaric hypoxic exposure combined with low-load resistant exercise (LRE), on muscular strength and endurance. DESIGN: A randomised controlled trial. METHODS: Well-trained netball players (n=30) took part in a 5 weeks training of knee flexor and extensor muscles in which LRE (20% of one repetition maximum) was combined with (1) an occlusion pressure of approximately 230mmHg around the upper thigh (KT, n=10), (2) hypoxic air to generate blood oxyhaemoglobin levels of approximately 80% (HT, n=10) or (3) with no additional stimulus (CT, n=10). The training was of the same intensity and amount in all groups. One to five days before and after training, participants performed a series of strength and endurance tests of the lower limbs (3-s maximal voluntary contraction [MVC(3)], area under 30-s force curve [MVC(30)], number of repetitions at 20% 1RM [Reps201RM]). In addition, the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the quadriceps and hamstrings were measured. RESULTS: Relative to CT, KT and HT increased MVC(3) (11.0±11.9% and 15.0±13.1%), MVC(30) (10.2±9.0% and 18.3±17.4%) and Reps201RM (28.9±23.7% and 23.3±24.0%, mean±90% confidence interval) after training. CSA increased by 6.6±4.5%, 6.1±5.1% and 2.9±2.7% in the KT, HT and CT groups respectively. CONCLUSIONS: LRE in conjunction with KT or HT can provide substantial improvements in muscle strength and endurance and may be useful alternatives to traditional training practices.
Apiwan Manimmanakorn; Michael J Hamlin; Jenny J Ross; Robert Taylor; Nuttaset Manimmanakorn
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-9-18
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of science and medicine in sport / Sports Medicine Australia     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1878-1861     ISO Abbreviation:  J Sci Med Sport     Publication Date:  2012 Sep 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-9-24     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9812598     Medline TA:  J Sci Med Sport     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Department of Social Sciences, Parks, Recreation, Tourism and Sport, Lincoln University, New Zealand. Electronic address:
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