Document Detail

Effects of environmental enrichment on sensitivity to cocaine in female rats: importance of control rates of behavior.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  19584714     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Environmental enrichment produces functional changes in mesolimbic dopamine transmission and alters sensitivity to psychomotor stimulants. These manipulations also alter the control rate of many behaviors that are sensitive to stimulant administration, which can make comparison of drug effects between isolated and enriched subjects difficult. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of environmental enrichment on control rates of behavior and on sensitivity to cocaine in tests of locomotor activity, drug self-administration, conditioned place preference, and toxicity. In the locomotor activity test, isolated rats exhibited greater activity after the administration of cocaine, but also had higher control rates of activity. When locomotor activity was expressed as a percentage of saline control values, enriched rats exhibited a greater increase relative to their own control than isolated rats. In the drug self-administration procedure, isolated rats had higher breakpoints on a progressive-ratio schedule of reinforcement when responding was maintained by cocaine; however, isolated rats also had higher breakpoints in saline substitution tests and higher rates of inactive lever responding. When the self-administration data were expressed as a percentage of these control values, enriched rats exhibited a greater increase in responding relative to their own control rates than isolated rats. No differences were observed between isolated and enriched rats under control conditions in the place preference and toxicity studies. In both of these procedures, enriched rats were more sensitive than isolated rats to all the doses of cocaine tested. These data emphasize the importance of considering control rates of behavior in studies examining environmental enrichment and drug sensitivity, and suggest that environmental enrichment increases sensitivity to cocaine across a range of dependent measures when differences in control rates of behavior are taken into account.
Mark A Smith; Jordan C Iordanou; Marika B Cohen; Kathryn T Cole; Samantha R Gergans; Megan A Lyle; Karl T Schmidt
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Behavioural pharmacology     Volume:  20     ISSN:  1473-5849     ISO Abbreviation:  Behav Pharmacol     Publication Date:  2009 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2009-07-20     Completed Date:  2009-09-24     Revised Date:  2013-07-02    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9013016     Medline TA:  Behav Pharmacol     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  312-21     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Psychology, Davidson College, Davidson, North Carolina 28035-7037, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Behavior, Animal / drug effects*
Cocaine / administration & dosage,  pharmacology*
Motor Activity / drug effects*
Narcotics / administration & dosage,  pharmacology*
Rats, Long-Evans
Self Administration
Social Environment*
Social Isolation*
Grant Support
52006292//Howard Hughes Medical Institute; DA14255/DA/NIDA NIH HHS; R15 DA014255/DA/NIDA NIH HHS; R15 DA014255-02A1/DA/NIDA NIH HHS
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Narcotics; 50-36-2/Cocaine

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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