Document Detail

Effects of different physical forms of wheat grain in corn-based starter on performance of young Holstein dairy calves.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  25064647     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of partially replacing corn with 2 forms of wheat grain on daily intake of starter feed, average daily gain, feed efficiency, rumen pH, fecal score, weaning weight, skeletal growth, and blood metabolites of dairy calves. Thirty-two male and female Holstein dairy calves (n = 8 calves per treatment) were used in a completely randomized block design. At d 3 of age, individually housed calves were randomly allocated to different treatments consisting of a starter diet with 60% ground corn (control), a starter diet with 60% whole corn, a starter diet with 30% ground corn plus 30% ground wheat (GCGW), and a starter with 30% ground corn plus 30% whole wheat (GCWW), with all other components in a meal form. All calves had free access to water and feed throughout the study period and received 4 L of milk replacer/d from d 3 to 50 and 2 L/d from d 50 to 52; weaning occurred at the end of d 52. Feed intake was recorded daily and body weight and skeletal growth measures were recorded on d 10 and every 10 d thereafter. Rumen pH was measured on d 30, 45, and 60. Blood sample were collected on d 30 and every 10 d thereafter through d 70. Data were analyzed using MIXED procedures of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Over the experimental period (d 1-70), the starter intake for the GCWW group was significantly different from the control group, but not different from the other groups. Calves fed whole wheat had a significantly greater average daily gain compared with other groups over the experimental period (d 1-70). Feed efficiency was only better in calves fed the GCWW diet than the GCGW group for postweaning and overall periods. No differences were observed for preweaning in body length, hip height, or withers height among the treatments; however, differences were significant in heart girth and body barrel. Postweaning, some of the body measurements were greater in calves fed the GCWW and GCGW starter diets. Blood glucose concentration reduced with age; however, blood urea nitrogen, β-hydroxybutyrate, albumin, and total protein increased with age. Treatment × time effects on blood urea nitrogen and total protein concentrations were detected. Blood urea nitrogen concentration (mg/dL) was affected by dietary treatments on d 30, 40, and 70, but no significant difference was detected on d 50 and 60. Serum total protein concentration (g/dL) was also affected by dietary treatments on d 40 and 70, but no significant difference was detected on d 40, 50, and 60. Whereas rumen pH was significantly reduced for the control compared with the GCWW treatment on d 45, comparison of the fecal scores showed no detectable differences among the treatments. Overall, the results of the current study indicate that starter diets containing whole wheat and ground corn can improve performance in young dairy calves compared with diets containing ground corn/ground wheat, whole corn, or ground corn, under our experimental conditions.
N Pezhveh; G R Ghorbani; P Rezamand; M Khorvash
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2014-7-23
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of dairy science     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1525-3198     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Dairy Sci.     Publication Date:  2014 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2014-7-27     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  2985126R     Medline TA:  J Dairy Sci     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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