Document Detail

Effects of chlorpyrifos in freshwater model ecosystems: the influence of experimental conditions on ecotoxicological thresholds.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  15962350     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Three experiments were conducted to determine the impact of the insecticide chlorpyrifos (single applications of 0.01 to 10 microg AI litre(-1)) in plankton-dominated nutrient-rich microcosms. The microcosms (water volume approximately 14 litres) were established in the laboratory under temperature, light regimes and nutrient levels that simulated cool 'temperate' and warm 'Mediterranean' environmental conditions. The fate of chlorpyrifos in the water column was monitored and the effects on zooplankton, phytoplankton and community metabolism were followed for 4 or 5 weeks. The mean half-life (t1/2) of chlorpyrifos in the water of the test systems was 45 h under 'temperate' conditions and about 30 h under 'Mediterranean' environmental conditions. Microcrustaceans (cladocerans and copepod nauplii) were amongst the most sensitive organisms. All three experiments yielded community NOEC (no observed effect concentrations) of 0.1 microg AI litre(-1), similar to those derived from more complex outdoor studies. Above this threshold level, responses and effect chains, and time spans for recovery, differed between the experiments. For example, algal blooms as an indirect effect from the impact of exposure on grazing organisms were only observed under the 'Mediterranean' experimental conditions. The relatively simple indoor test system seems to be sufficient to provide estimates of safe threshold levels for the acute insecticidal effects of low-persistence compounds such as chlorpyrifos. The robustness of the community NOEC indicates that this threshold level is likely to be representative for many freshwater systems.
René P A van Wijngaarden; Theo C M Brock; Mark T Douglas
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Pest management science     Volume:  61     ISSN:  1526-498X     ISO Abbreviation:  Pest Manag. Sci.     Publication Date:  2005 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2005-09-19     Completed Date:  2005-11-08     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  100898744     Medline TA:  Pest Manag Sci     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  923-35     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright (c) 2005 Society of Chemical Industry.
Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, PO Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands.
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MeSH Terms
Chlorpyrifos / toxicity*
Fresh Water*
Insecticides / toxicity
Models, Biological*
Plankton / drug effects
Time Factors
Water Pollutants, Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Insecticides; 0/Water Pollutants, Chemical; 2921-88-2/Chlorpyrifos

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