Document Detail

Effects of cadmium, estradiol-17beta and their interaction on gonadal condition and metamorphosis of male and female African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20299069     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
To assess interaction effects between cadmium (Cd, a putative xenoestrogen) and estradiol-17beta (E(2)) on sex differentiation and metamorphosis, Xenopus laevis were exposed to solvent-control (0.005% ethanol), Cd (10microgL(-1)), E(2) (1microgL(-1)), or Cd and E(2) (Cd+E(2)) in FETAX medium from fertilization to 75d postfertilization. Each treatment was applied to four aquaria, each with 30 fertilized eggs. Mortality was recorded and animals were sampled as they completed metamorphosis (Nieuwkoop and Faber stage 66). Gonadal sex of individuals (including >or= tadpoles NF stage 55 at day 75) was determined gross-morphologically and used to compute sex ratios. Time course and percent completion of metamorphosis, snout-vent length (SVL), hindlimb length (HLL) and weight were analyzed for each gender separately. Survival rates did not differ among treatments. The E(2) and Cd+E(2) treatments significantly skewed sex ratios towards females; however, no sex-ratio differences were observed between the control and Cd treatments or between the E(2) and Cd+E(2) treatments. Time course of metamorphosis was generally delayed and percent completion of metamorphosis was generally reduced in males and females exposed to Cd, E(2) or their combination compared to control animals. In males, but not females, the effect of Cd+E(2) was greater than that of individual chemicals. Weight at completion of metamorphosis was reduced only in females and only by the Cd+E(2) treatment. In conclusion, although Cd at an environmentally relevant concentration did not exhibit direct or indirect feminizing effects in Xenopus tadpoles, the metal and E(2) both had similar inhibitory effects on metamorphosis that were of greater magnitude in males than females.
Bibek Sharma; Reynaldo Pati?o
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2010-03-17
Journal Detail:
Title:  Chemosphere     Volume:  79     ISSN:  1879-1298     ISO Abbreviation:  Chemosphere     Publication Date:  2010 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-03-23     Completed Date:  2010-06-11     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0320657     Medline TA:  Chemosphere     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  499-505     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Natural Resources Management, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409-2125, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Cadmium / toxicity*
Embryo, Nonmammalian
Estradiol / toxicity*
Gonads / anatomy & histology*,  drug effects
Metamorphosis, Biological / drug effects,  physiology*
Sex Differentiation
Water Pollutants, Chemical / toxicity*
Xenopus laevis / metabolism
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Water Pollutants, Chemical; 50-28-2/Estradiol; 7440-43-9/Cadmium

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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