Document Detail

Effects of alcohol availability, access to alcohol, and naltrexone on self-reported craving and patterns of drinking in response to an alcohol-cue availability procedure.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22333328     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVE: Craving has long been cited by patients and providers as a principal construct in alcohol use disorders and an essential target for treatment. The goal of the current study was to examine the effects of alcohol availability (20% vs. 80% availability), access to alcohol ("open" vs. "locked" trials), and medication (oral naltrexone [Revia] vs. placebo) on self-reported craving and two behavioral measures of drinking (latency of attempt to access alcohol, amount of alcohol consumed when access permitted) in response to an alcohol-cue availability procedure.
METHOD: Non-treatment-seeking, alcohol-dependent men and women (N = 58) self-referred for an alcohol administration study and were administered a modified alcohol-cue availability procedure under two medication conditions (naltrexone, placebo) using a within-subjects, repeated-measures design.
RESULTS: Analyses demonstrated that the experimental manipulations used in this study had differential effects on craving and patterns of drinking. Specifically, reduced availability of alcohol (i.e., when alcohol was available in only 20% as opposed to 80% of trials) resulted in greater amounts of alcohol consumed per open trial; the unanticipated blocking of access to alcohol (i.e., a "locked" trial during the 80% availability condition) triggered more rapid attempts to obtain alcohol on subsequent trials. Naltrexone, relative to placebo, was associated with significant reductions in cravings for alcohol.
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these findings offer partial support for the cognitive processing model and reinforce the utility of evaluating both self-report and behavioral indicators of motivation to drink in studies designed to identify factors associated with the construct of craving.
Marc I Kruse; Alexander J Radnovich; Raj K Kalapatapu; Nicole Mehdiyoun; R Andrew Chambers; Dena Davidson
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs     Volume:  73     ISSN:  1938-4114     ISO Abbreviation:  J Stud Alcohol Drugs     Publication Date:  2012 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-02-15     Completed Date:  2012-07-10     Revised Date:  2014-03-19    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101295847     Medline TA:  J Stud Alcohol Drugs     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  205-15     Citation Subset:  IM    
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MeSH Terms
Alcohol Drinking / drug therapy*,  psychology*
Alcoholism / psychology*
Behavior, Addictive / drug therapy*,  psychology*
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Double-Blind Method
Ethanol / pharmacology
Middle Aged
Naltrexone / pharmacology,  therapeutic use*
Narcotic Antagonists / pharmacology,  therapeutic use
Self Report
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Narcotic Antagonists; 3K9958V90M/Ethanol; 5S6W795CQM/Naltrexone

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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