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Effects of aerobic fitness on oxygen uptake kinetics in heavy intensity swimming.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21879352     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
This study aimed to characterise both the [Formula: see text] kinetics within constant heavy-intensity swimming exercise, and to assess the relationships between [Formula: see text] kinetics and other parameters of aerobic fitness, in well-trained swimmers. On separate days, 21 male swimmers completed: (1) an incremental swimming test to determine their maximal oxygen uptake [Formula: see text], first ventilatory threshold (VT), and the velocity associated with [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] and (2) two square-wave transitions from rest to heavy-intensity exercise, to determine their [Formula: see text] kinetics. All the tests involved breath-by-breath analysis of freestyle swimming using a swimming snorkel. [Formula: see text] kinetics was modelled with two exponential functions. The mean values for the incremental test were 56.0 ± 6.0 ml min(-1) kg(-1), 1.45 ± 0.08 m s(-1); and 42.1 ± 5.7 ml min(-1) kg(-1) for [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and VT, respectively. For the square-wave transition, the time constant of the primary phase (τ(p)) averaged 17.3 ± 5.4 s and the relevant slow component (A'(sc)) averaged 4.8 ± 2.9 ml min(-1) kg(-1) [representing 8.9% of the end-exercise [Formula: see text] (%A'(sc))]. τ(p) was correlated with [Formula: see text] (r = -0.55, P = 0.01), but not with either [Formula: see text] (r = 0.05, ns) or VT (r = 0.14, ns). The %A'(sc) did not correlate with either [Formula: see text] (r = -0.14, ns) or [Formula: see text] (r = 0.06, ns), but was inversely related with VT (r = -0.61, P < 0.01). This study was the first to describe the [Formula: see text] kinetics in heavy-intensity swimming using specific swimming exercise and appropriate methods. As has been demonstrated in cycling, faster [Formula: see text] kinetics allow higher aerobic power outputs to be attained. The slow component seems to be reduced in swimmers with higher ventilatory thresholds.
Authors:
Joana F Reis; Francisco B Alves; Paula M Bruno; Veronica Vleck; Gregoire P Millet
Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2011-8-31
Journal Detail:
Title:  European journal of applied physiology     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1439-6327     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2011 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-8-31     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  100954790     Medline TA:  Eur J Appl Physiol     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Affiliation:
CIPER, Faculty of Human Kinetics, Technical University of Lisbon, Estrada da Costa, Cruz Quebrada, 1499-002, Cruz-Quebrada-Dafundo, Portugal, joanaf.reis@netcabo.pt.
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