Document Detail

Effects of acute tyrosine/phenylalanine depletion on the selective processing of smoking-related cues and the relative value of cigarettes in smokers.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  18038222     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
RATIONALE: Acute tyrosine/phenylalanine depletion (ATPD) is a validated neurobiological challenge that results in reduced dopaminergic neurotransmission, allowing examination of the effects of a hypodopaminergic state on craving-related processes.
OBJECTIVES: We studied 16 nonabstaining smokers (>10 cigarettes/day; 9 males; age 20-33 years) to whom was administered a tyrosine/phenylalanine-free mixture (TYR/PHE-free) and a balanced amino acid mixture (BAL) in a double-blind, counterbalanced, crossover design.
METHODS: Subjective cigarette craving, attentional bias to smoking-related word cues, relative value of cigarettes, negative mood, and expired carbon monoxide (CO) levels were measured at various timepoints through 300 min. Participants smoked at hourly intervals to prevent acute nicotine withdrawal during testing.
RESULTS: The TYR/PHE-free mixture, as compared to the BAL mixture, was associated with a greater increase in CO levels from baseline (p = 0.01). Adjusting for the potential confounding influence of between-condition differences in CO levels across time, TYR/PHE-free mixture was associated with increased demand for cigarettes (p = 0.01) and decreased attentional bias toward smoking-related words (p = 0.003). There were no significant differences between conditions in either subjective craving or depressed or anxious mood (p values > 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Among nonabstaining daily smokers, acute dopaminergic depletion via ATPD may influence smoking behavior and indices of smoking-related motivation, such as attentional bias to smoking cues and relative cigarette value, which are not readily captured by subjective craving.
Brian Hitsman; James MacKillop; Anne Lingford-Hughes; Tim M Williams; Faheem Ahmad; Sally Adams; David J Nutt; Marcus R Munafò
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural     Date:  2007-11-25
Journal Detail:
Title:  Psychopharmacology     Volume:  196     ISSN:  0033-3158     ISO Abbreviation:  Psychopharmacology (Berl.)     Publication Date:  2008 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2008-02-15     Completed Date:  2008-08-14     Revised Date:  2014-02-19    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7608025     Medline TA:  Psychopharmacology (Berl)     Country:  Germany    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  611-21     Citation Subset:  IM    
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MeSH Terms
Amino Acids / metabolism*
Cross-Over Studies
Dopamine / physiology
Double-Blind Method
Multivariate Analysis
Phenylalanine / deficiency*
Reaction Time
Smoking / psychology*
Smoking Cessation / psychology
Tyrosine / deficiency*
Grant Support
G0400575//Medical Research Council; G0601461//Medical Research Council; K08 DA017145/DA/NIDA NIH HHS
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Amino Acids; 42HK56048U/Tyrosine; 47E5O17Y3R/Phenylalanine; VTD58H1Z2X/Dopamine

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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