Document Detail


The Effects of Cotrimoxazole Prophylactic Treatment on Adverse Health Outcomes among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Exposed, Uninfected Infants.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22581219     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
BACKGROUND:: The World Health Organization guidelines recommend cotrimoxazole prophylactic treatment (CPT) for all HIV-exposed infants from age 6 weeks to the cessation of breastfeeding and the exclusion of HIV infection. There are limited data about the effects of CPT among this population of infants. We examined the effects of CPT on adverse health outcomes among HIV-exposed infants during the first 36 weeks of life by using data from the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition (BAN) study, a large clinical trial of antiretroviral drugs given to the mother or infant for prevention of HIV transmission during breastfeeding. METHODS:: For the analysis, we assigned a status of CPT-exposed to infants who were participating in the study after the CPT program started. We estimated unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for the effect of CPT status on time to incident malaria, severe illness or death, anemia, and weight-for-age Z score < -2.0. Participation in the study was limited to focus exclusively on HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. RESULTS:: The HR for the effect of CPT on incident malaria was 0.35 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.21, 0.57) during the first 10 weeks of CPT exposure, and 0.93 (95% CI: 0.67, 1.29) for the remaining 20 weeks. CPT was not associated with the other outcomes examined. CONCLUSIONS:: CPT offered temporary protection against malaria among HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. However, CPT offered no protection against anemia, low weight for age, or the collapsed outcome of severe illness or death.
Authors:
Anna Dow; Dumbani Kayira; Michael Hudgens; Annelies Van Rie; Caroline C King; Sascha Ellington; Athena Kourtis; Abigail Norris Turner; Steven Meshnick; Zebrone Kacheche; Denise J Jamieson; Charles Chasela; Charles van der Horst
Related Documents :
2081789 - New uses of intravenous immune globulin in newborn infants.
16193079 - Necrotizing staphylococcal pneumonia in a neonate.
16517919 - Comparative prevalence of virulence factors in escherichia coli causing urinary tract i...
9392399 - Vertical transmission of cytomegalovirus, most probably by breast milk, to an infant wi...
1731019 - Outpatient treatment of febrile infants 28 to 89 days of age with intramuscular adminis...
8556519 - Antibody-dependent enhancement of respiratory syncytial virus infection by sera from yo...
25456299 - Universal cranial ultrasound screening in preterm infants with gestational age 33-36 we...
6823919 - Renal response in low-birth-weight neonates. results of prolonged intake of two differe...
24768799 - A pseudoisochromatic test of color vision for human infants.
Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-5-10
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Pediatric infectious disease journal     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1532-0987     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2012 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-5-14     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8701858     Medline TA:  Pediatr Infect Dis J     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Affiliation:
aDepartment of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC, USA bUniversity of North Carolina Project, Lilongwe, Malawi cDepartment of Biostatistics, University of North Carolina Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC, USA dCenters for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA eOhio State University, Columbus, OH, USA fUniversity of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
Export Citation:
APA/MLA Format     Download EndNote     Download BibTex
MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


Previous Document:  Iterative image reconstruction in helical cone-beam x-ray CT using a stored system matrix approach.
Next Document:  Virus Load Kinetics and Resistance Development during Oseltamivir Treatment in Infants and Children ...