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Effects of Blood Pressure, Smoking, and Their Interaction on Carotid Artery Structure and Function.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  11208749     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
-In the present study, we examined the relationships among carotid blood pressure, arterial geometry, and wall stress and determined the impact of hypertension, smoking status, and their interaction on these relationships. The study involved 679 subjects aged 49 to 82 years: 372 smokers (190 men and 182 women) and 307 nonsmokers (110 men and 197 women). Blood samples were taken to determine total cholesterol levels. Central pulse pressure was derived from measured brachial artery pressure with a linear regression equation from data obtained in a subgroup of 276 subjects that related brachial and carotid pulse pressures; the latter was measured with applanation tonometry. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), lumen diameter (D), and stiffness index (SI) were determined with high-resolution B-mode ultrasound. Mean and pulsatile circumferential stress (final sigma(C)) was calculated according to the Laplace relationship. Indexes of arterial geometry and function were adjusted for age, height, and heart rate. Hypertension (treated and/or screening blood pressure of >140/90 mm Hg) was present in 71 nonsmokers and 186 smokers. Nonsmokers and smokers did not differ in blood pressure and cholesterol levels. Hypertension and smoking individually and interactively significantly increased adjusted IMT, D, and SI. The radius-to-wall thickness ratio (R/IMT) (where R=D/2) and final sigma(C) were increased in hypertensives. SI was correlated with IMT (r=0.56, P:<0.001); radius-to-wall thickness ratio was inversely correlated with central pulse pressure (r=-0.38, P:<0.001). Smoking did not influence these relationships. In conclusion, carotid artery wall remodeling appears to follow Laplace's law but is insufficient to prevent an increase in circumferential stress in hypertensive subjects. Unlike hypertension, smoking does not influence the lumen-to-wall ratio but has a significant effect on wall stiffness.
Authors:
Yu-Lu Liang; Louise M. Shiel; Helena Teede; Dimitra Kotsopoulos; John McNeil; James D. Cameron; Barry P. McGrath
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Hypertension     Volume:  37     ISSN:  1524-4563     ISO Abbreviation:  Hypertension     Publication Date:  2001 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2001-Feb-21     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7906255     Medline TA:  Hypertension     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  6-11     Citation Subset:  -    
Affiliation:
Vascular Research Group (Y.-L.L., L.M.S., H.T., D.K., B.P.M.), Department of Medicine, and Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine (J.M.), Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
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