Document Detail

Effectiveness and safety of ginger in the treatment of pregnancy-induced nausea and vomiting.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  15802416     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVE: Conventional antiemetics are burdened with the potential of teratogenic effects during the critical embryogenic period of pregnancy. Thus, a safe and effective medication would be a welcome addition to the therapeutic repertoire. This systematic review was aimed at assessing the evidence for or against the efficacy and safety of ginger (Zingiber officinale) therapy for nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. DATA SOURCES: Systematic literature searches were conducted in 3 computerized databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library), and the reference lists of all papers located were checked for further relevant publications. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: For the evaluation of efficacy, only double-blind, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. All retrieved clinical data, including uncontrolled trials, case reports, observational studies, and RCTs, were included in the review of safety. TABULATION, INTEGRATION, AND RESULTS: Six double-blind RCTs with a total of 675 participants and a prospective observational cohort study (n = 187) met all inclusion criteria. The methodological quality of 4 of 5 RCTs was high. Four of the 6 RCTs (n = 246) showed superiority of ginger over placebo; the other 2 RCTs (n = 429) indicated that ginger was as effective as the reference drug (vitamin B6) in relieving the severity of nausea and vomiting episodes. The observational study retrieved and RCTs (including follow-up periods) showed the absence of significant side effects or adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes. There were no spontaneous or case reports of adverse events during ginger treatment in pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Ginger may be an effective treatment for nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. However, more observational studies, with a larger sample size, are needed to confirm the encouraging preliminary data on ginger safety. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: I.
Francesca Borrelli; Raffaele Capasso; Gabriella Aviello; Max H Pittler; Angelo A Izzo
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Obstetrics and gynecology     Volume:  105     ISSN:  0029-7844     ISO Abbreviation:  Obstet Gynecol     Publication Date:  2005 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2005-04-01     Completed Date:  2005-05-12     Revised Date:  2009-10-26    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0401101     Medline TA:  Obstet Gynecol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  849-56     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Department of Experimental Pharmacology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.
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MeSH Terms
Administration, Oral
Antiemetics / administration & dosage,  therapeutic use*
Double-Blind Method
Hyperemesis Gravidarum / drug therapy*
Prospective Studies
Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
Treatment Outcome
Reg. No./Substance:
Comment In:
Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Sep;106(3):640; author reply 640-1   [PMID:  16135602 ]

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