Document Detail

Effectiveness of Norplant implants among Thai women in Bangkok.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  8631187     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy, acceptability, side effects and continuation rates of the implant system in Thai women. A five-year clinical study of 308 women receiving Norplant-6 implants in Bangkok was conducted. Acceptors' mean age was 29 years, and mean number of children was about two. More than half of the users (63%) finished primary school. The cumulative continuation rates for Norplant implants at first, second, third, fourth and fifth years were, respectively, 98%, 91%, 83%, 78% and 71%. Eight out of a total of eleven pregnancies occurred in the fourth and fifth year of use. The cumulative pregnancy rate was 1.1% for the third year, 2.0% for the fourth year and 4.2% for the fifth year. Desire for future pregnancy was the leading cause for termination of Norplant implants use. The five-year cumulative termination rate for planned pregnancy was 9.2%. Disruption of menstrual rhythm, particularly increased bleeding, was the other main reason for termination; however, the prevalence of menstrual irregularities appeared to diminish with time. The cumulative termination rate for menstrual irregularities in the fifth year of the study was 4.4%. The complaints of "other medical reasons" for removal of Norplant implants were acne, severe headache, and chloasma. The five-year cumulative termination rate for other personal reasons was 7.9%. These personal reasons were husband having vasectomy, husband objection and divorce. It can be seen from this five-year study that Norplant implants are well accepted by Thai women. However, the efficacy in preventing pregnancy was not acceptable during the fourth and fifth year of use in this study, which was different from results of other international studies.
Between June 1986 and December 1988, staff at a family planning clinic in greater Bangkok, Thailand, recruited 308 healthy women aged 18-45 for a clinical trial designed to evaluate the efficacy, acceptability, side effects, and continuation rates of the contraceptive implant system Norplant. Their average parity was 1.9 live births. The cumulative first-, second-, third-, fourth-, and fifth-year continuation rates stood at 97.6%, 90.7%, 82.9%, 77.9%, and 71%, respectively. During the first two years, no Norplant acceptor became pregnant. In the third year, however, the cumulative accidental pregnancy rate was 1.1% and increased to 2% in the fourth year and 4.2% in the fifth year. All accidental pregnancies were intrauterine. The major reason for Norplant removal was desire for pregnancy (5-year cumulative termination rate = 9.2%) followed by changes in menstruation patterns, particularly increased menstrual bleeding (4.4%). The prevalence of menstruation disorders decreased with time, however. For example, 64.8% of all users experienced an irregular menstrual cycle during the first 1-3 months of Norplant use. By 22-24 months of use, it had fallen to 54.9%, and to 39.5% by 58-60 months of use. The five-year cumulative termination rate for other personal reasons was 7.9%. These reasons included husband undergoing vasectomy, husband's objection to Norplant, and divorce. The relatively high continuation rates at the first and fifth year of use suggest that Thai women accepted Norplant well. The higher accidental pregnancy rates at four and five years of use than those of other international studies are troublesome, however.
S Chompootaweep; E Kochagarn; S Sirisumpan; J Tang-usaha; B Theppitaksak; N Dusitsin
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Contraception     Volume:  53     ISSN:  0010-7824     ISO Abbreviation:  Contraception     Publication Date:  1996 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1996-07-03     Completed Date:  1996-07-03     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0234361     Medline TA:  Contraception     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  33-6     Citation Subset:  IM; J    
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.
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MeSH Terms
Acne Vulgaris / chemically induced,  epidemiology
Amenorrhea / chemically induced,  epidemiology
Contraceptive Agents, Female / administration & dosage,  adverse effects,  standards*
Drug Implants
Headache / chemically induced,  epidemiology
Levonorgestrel / administration & dosage,  adverse effects,  standards*
Life Tables
Melanosis / chemically induced,  epidemiology
Menstrual Cycle / drug effects,  physiology
Middle Aged
Patient Acceptance of Health Care
Pregnancy Rate
Thailand / epidemiology
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Contraceptive Agents, Female; 0/Drug Implants; 797-63-7/Levonorgestrel

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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