Document Detail

Effect of timing of introduction of complementary foods on iron and zinc status of formula fed infants at 12, 24, and 36 months of age.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  11320951     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVE: The timing of introduction of complementary food to an infant's diet is variable throughout the world. Our objective was to determine whether early introduction of complementary foods affects iron and zinc status of formulated infants at 12, 24, and 36 months of age. DESIGN: A randomized, prospective trial was conducted. Infants were randomly assigned to receive either a) early introduction (at 3 to 4 months of age) of commercially prepared or parent's choice of complementary foods; or b) late introduction (at 6 months of age) of commercially prepared complementary foods or parent's choice of complementary foods. In addition to complementary foods, infants were fed commercial infant formula as recommended by their pediatrician. Hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, and serum ferritin and zinc concentrations were determined at 12, 24, and 36 months of age. Three-day diet diaries were completed at 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months of age. SUBJECTS/SETTING: One hundred seventy-five infants younger than 3 months were recruited by mailings to parents in the Cincinnati area. Of these, 172 were enrolled, 90 in the early-introduction group and 82 in the late-introduction group. One hundred thirty-three infants (n = 67 in the early, n = 66 in the late group) completed the study. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Student t test and regression analyses were used to determine whether there were group differences and whether there was a relationship between serum parameters and dietary intake. RESULTS: Infants fed complementary foods early had significantly greater iron intakes until 6 months of age; however, there were no differences in the iron status parameters (ferritin, hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular volume) at 12, 24, or 36 months of age. The early introduction group consumed slightly less zinc than the late introduction group at 5 months (4.4 vs 4.8 mg/day, P < .01) and 6 months (4.4 vs 4.7 mg/day, P < .01). At all other times there were no differences between the early and late group in zinc intakes. The serum zinc concentration was not associated with dietary zinc. Both groups had normal serum zinc concentrations at 12, 24, and 36 months and there were no differences between groups. APPLICATIONS/CONCLUSIONS: The iron and zinc status of infants in this study was not influenced by the timing or type of complementary foods introduced. However, the infants were formula fed and the mean iron and zinc intakes that were equal or greater than the Recommended Dietary Allowances for the first 6 months of age.
K K Kattelmann; M Ho; B L Specker
Publication Detail:
Type:  Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of the American Dietetic Association     Volume:  101     ISSN:  0002-8223     ISO Abbreviation:  J Am Diet Assoc     Publication Date:  2001 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2001-04-25     Completed Date:  2001-05-10     Revised Date:  2008-11-21    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7503061     Medline TA:  J Am Diet Assoc     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  443-7     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Nutrition, Food Science, and Hospitality Department, South Dakota State University, Box 2275A, Brookings, SD 57007 605/688-4045, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Age Factors
Body Composition
Child, Preschool
Diet Records
Erythrocyte Indices
Ferritins / blood
Growth / physiology*
Hemoglobins / analysis
Infant Food*
Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Iron / blood*
Iron, Dietary / administration & dosage*
Prospective Studies
Regression Analysis
Time Factors
Zinc / administration & dosage*,  blood*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Hemoglobins; 0/Iron, Dietary; 7439-89-6/Iron; 7440-66-6/Zinc; 9007-73-2/Ferritins

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