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Effect of swim-cap model on passive drag.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23287832     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
ABSTRACT: Hydrodynamics plays an important role in swimming because even small decreases in a swimmer's drag can lead to performance improvements. During the gliding phases of a race, the head of a swimmer is an important point of impact with the fluid, and the swim-cap, even if it covers only a small portion of the swimmer's body, can have an influence on drag. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects on passive drag (Dp) of wearing three different types of swim-caps (LSC: a lycra cap; CSC: a silicone cap; HSC: a silicone helmet cap without seams). Sixteen swimmers were tested at 3 velocities (1.5, 1.7, 1.9 m·s), and the Dp measurements were repeated at each condition 5 times. A statistical analysis revealed significant differences in drag (p < 0.01) among caps: Dp is 5-6.5% lower for HSC than for CSC at all speeds and 6% lower in HSC than CSC at 1.9 m·s. No differences in Dp were observed between LSC and CSC at all speeds. Thus, the differences in Dp are based on the type of material (lycra vs. silicone) and on the presence/lack of seams: the HSC swim-cap is the most rigid, the most adherent to the swimmer's head and does not allow the formation of wrinkles compared with the other two investigated swim-caps. Therefore, the following conclusions can be made: 1- swimmers should take care when selecting their swim cap if they want to improve the fluid dynamics at the "leading edge" of their body and 2- because Dp is affected by the swim-cap model, care should be taken when comparing data from different studies, especially at faster investigated speeds.
Authors:
Giorgio Gatta; Paola Zamparo; Matteo Cortesi
Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2013-1-2
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of strength and conditioning research / National Strength & Conditioning Association     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1533-4287     ISO Abbreviation:  J Strength Cond Res     Publication Date:  2013 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-1-4     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9415084     Medline TA:  J Strength Cond Res     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Affiliation:
1 Faculty of Exercise and Sport Science, University of Bologna, via del Pilastro 8, 40127, Bologna (Italy) 2 Department of Neurological, Neuropsychological, Morphological and Movement Sciences, Faculty of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Verona, via Casorati 43, 37131, Verona (Italy) 3 Department of Histology, Embryology and Applied Biology, University of Bologna, via del Pilastro 8, 40127, Bologna (Italy).
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