Document Detail

Effect of surface treatment on cell responses to grades 4 and 5 titanium for orthodontic mini-implants.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22640672     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
INTRODUCTION: Mini-implants are used to improve orthodontic anchorage, but optimal composition and surface characteristics have yet to be determined. We investigated the behavior of osteoblast-like cells on grade 4 commercially pure titanium and grade 5 titanium alloy with different surface treatments for mini-implants.
METHODS: MC3T3 cells were plated on machined, acid-etched, or acid-etched grade 4 titanium enriched with calcium phosphate, or machined, anodized, or anodized and calcium phosphate-enriched grade 5 titanium disks. Surface and cell morphologies were assessed by scanning electron microscopy. Cell viability was measured by chemiluminescence, cytoskeletal organization was investigated by immunofluorescence, and real-time polymerase chain reaction for osteoblast-specific genes was performed to measure cell differentiation.
RESULTS: Flattened shapes and strong stress fibers were observed on the machined surfaces; cells on the rough surfaces had a spindle shape, with lower cytoskeletal polarization. Cell proliferation was highest on smooth grade 4 titanium surfaces, whereas cells quickly reached a plateau on rough grade 4 titanium; no difference was observed after 72 hours in the grade 5 titanium groups. Calcium phosphate enrichment on grade 4 titanium significantly increased the messenger RNA levels for alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin. Osteoblastic markers were higher on the grade 5 titanium machined surfaces than on the rough surfaces, and comparable with acid-etched grade 4 titanium.
CONCLUSIONS: Although the grade 4 titanium enriched with calcium phosphate had the highest level of differentiation in vitro, the grade 5 titanium machined surfaces supported cell proliferation and matrix synthesis, and induced high expression of early differentiation markers. Increased mechanical resistance of grade 5 titanium makes it a potential candidate for orthodontic mini-implants.
Carlo Galli; Marilina Piemontese; Francesca Ravanetti; Simone Lumetti; Giovanni Passeri; Mauro Gandolfini; Guido M Macaluso
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics : official publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, its constituent societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics     Volume:  141     ISSN:  1097-6752     ISO Abbreviation:  Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop     Publication Date:  2012 Jun 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-05-29     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8610224     Medline TA:  Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  705-14     Citation Subset:  D; IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Research associate, Section of Odontostomatologia, University of Parma, Parma, Italy.
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