Document Detail


Effect of short-term enteral feeding with eicosapentaenoic and gamma-linolenic acids on alveolar macrophage eicosanoid synthesis and bactericidal function in rats.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  10507617     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
OBJECTIVES: Because vasoactive eicosanoids derived from arachidonic acid present in immune cell phospholipids promote lung inflammation in critically ill patients, novel experimental diets containing eicosapentaenoic acid from fish oil and gamma-linolenic acid from borage oil have been designed to limit arachidonic acid metabolism. However, excess dietary eicosapentaenoic acid impairs superoxide formation and bacterial killing by immune cells. The present study determined whether short-term enteral feeding with diets enriched with either eicosapentaenoic acid alone or in combination with gamma-linolenic acid would modulate alveolar macrophage eicosanoid synthesis without compromising bactericidal function. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, controlled, blinded study. SETTING: University medical center. SUBJECTS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. INTERVENTIONS: Rats underwent surgical placement of a gastroduodenal feeding catheter and were randomly assigned to receive one of three high-fat (55.2% of total calories), low-carbohydrate diets containing isocaloric amounts of lipids for 4 days. The control diet was enriched with linoleic acid, whereas the two test diets were low in linoleic acid and enriched with either 5 mole % eicosapentaenoic acid alone or in combination with 5 mole % gamma-linolenic acid. Alveolar macrophages were then procured to assess phospholipid fatty acid composition, eicosanoid synthesis after stimulation with endotoxin, superoxide formation and phagocytosis by flow cytometry, and killing of Staphylococcus aureus MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Alveolar macrophage levels of arachidonic acid were significantly (p < .01) lower and levels of eicosapentaenoic and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acids were higher after feeding the eicosapentaenoic and gamma-linolenic acid diet vs. the linoleic acid diet. Ratios of thromboxane B2,/B3, leukotriene B4/B5, and prostaglandin E2/E1 were reduced in the macrophages from rats given either the eicosapentaenoic acid or eicosapentaenoic acid with gamma-linolenic acid diet compared with ratios from rats given the linoleic acid diet. Macrophages from rats given the eicosapentaenoic with gamma-linolenic acid diet released 35% or 24% more prostaglandin E1 than macrophages from rats given either the linoleic acid or the eicosapentaenoic acid diet, respectively. Macrophage superoxide generation, phagocytosis of opsonized zymosan, and killing of S. aureus were similar irrespective of dietary treatment. CONCLUSION: Short-term enteral feeding with an eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched or eicosapentaenoic with gamma-linolenic acid-enriched diet rapidly modulated the fatty acid composition of alveolar macrophage phospholipids, promoted a shift toward formation of less inflammatory eicosanoids by stimulated macrophages, but did not impair alveolar macrophage bactericidal function relative to responses observed after feeding a linoleic acid diet.
Authors:
J D Palombo; S J DeMichele; P J Boyce; E E Lydon; J W Liu; Y S Huang; R A Forse; J P Mizgerd; B R Bistrian
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Critical care medicine     Volume:  27     ISSN:  0090-3493     ISO Abbreviation:  Crit. Care Med.     Publication Date:  1999 Sep 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1999-10-15     Completed Date:  1999-10-15     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0355501     Medline TA:  Crit Care Med     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1908-15     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Affiliation:
Department of Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA. jpalombo@caregroup.harvard.edu
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Animals
Arachidonic Acids / metabolism
Bacterial Infections / prevention & control*
Eicosanoids / biosynthesis,  metabolism*
Eicosapentaenoic Acid / therapeutic use*
Enteral Nutrition / methods*
Fish Oils / therapeutic use
Macrophages, Alveolar / metabolism*
Male
Phagocytosis
Plant Extracts / therapeutic use
Prospective Studies
Prostaglandins E / metabolism
Random Allocation
Rats
Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult / immunology,  prevention & control*
Staphylococcus aureus / drug effects
Superoxides / metabolism
gamma-Linolenic Acid / therapeutic use*
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Arachidonic Acids; 0/Eicosanoids; 0/Fish Oils; 0/Plant Extracts; 0/Prostaglandins E; 11062-77-4/Superoxides; 1553-41-9/Eicosapentaenoic Acid; 506-26-3/gamma-Linolenic Acid

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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